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food-grade lubricants

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... important advantage of cast steel, particularly the plain carbon grade, is its weldability. It can be rewelded with steel or hardfaced with tool steel, aluminum bronze, or other wear-resistant hardfacing alloy. Because of its resistance to galling, it is less desirable for dies used for forming carbon and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... limitations are particularly severe if the final product will be used in the food, packaging, textile, or toy industry, or in another application that involves extended handling by the user. Physical blowing agents are volatile liquids or compressed gases that are pumped into the mold to produce the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... below −18 °C (0 °F) MIL-L-17331 Lubricating oil, steam turbine (noncorrosive) Petroleum oil plus inhibitors Lubrication of main turbine gears, auxiliary turbines, air compressors, hydraulic equipment MIL-L-19224 (Grades A, B, and C) Lubricating oil, mineral, preservative; pour point −34 °C...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...; manometers Miscellaneous Christmas decorations; drinking tumblers and food service sets … Impact-grade acrylics are injection molded into parts for the industrial, medical, automotive, and consumer markets. Specific applications are listed in Table 2 along with uses for extruded sheet and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Analysis” in this Volume). Commercial tin is considered to be pure when it contains a minimum of 99.8% Sn. Of the various types of commercially pure tin, about 80 to 90% is a high-purity commercial tin known as grade A tin as specified in ASTM B 339. According to this specification, grade A...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... ensure that the surface remains in good condition. Pewter tankards and plates also have approximately the same degree of corrosion resistance to foods and drinks as tin does. With the normal contact time, the amount of tin dissolved by beer is insufficient to cause a haze. However, citrus juices or...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... nuclear-reactor cores, pharmaceutical and food-handling equipment, and some aerospace applications. Figure 1 shows typical forging-temperature ranges for most standard stainless steels. A wide range of forging temperatures can be used for most of the common austenitic types because of the natural...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... above this eutectic, alloy strength is decreased appreciably. Table 3 shows bulk mechanical properties of ASTM grades 1 to 3. These properties have some value for initial materials screening comparisons of alloys; but they are not reliable predictors of the performance of thin layers bonded to a...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... martensitic grades. Figure 1 provides a useful summary of some of the compositional and property linkages in the stainless steel family. Fig. 1 Compositional and property linkages in the stainless steel family of alloys Production of stainless steels is a two-stage process involving the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... the mold, whether dull or high gloss, and can be pigmented to any opaque color. Many grades also have the approval of various code and regulatory agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for repeated food contact, National Sanitation Foundation and Canadian Standards Association for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... nickel, molybdenum, copper, titanium, aluminum, silicon, niobium, nitrogen, sulfur, and selenium. Carbon is normally present in amounts ranging from less than 0.03% to over 1.0% in certain martensitic grades. Although stainless steel is naturally passivated by exposure to air and other oxidizers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... chemistries or the paperwork in the data packages that accompany a part. Knowledge of the equipment being used and its limitations determines how exact of a PMI is being attained. For example, most in situ techniques do not clearly discern between different grades of plain carbon steel when the only...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Cadmium 1.94 3.40 Titanium 1.39 2.43 Phosphor bronze (ingot) 1.85 3.24 Copper (grade A ingot) 1.21 2.12 Magnesium (ingot) 1.65 2.89 Manganese 1.07 1.87 Acrylic (polymethyl methacrylate, PMMA) 1.6 2.80 Brass (ingot) 1.05 1.84 Copper (tubing) 1.57 2.75 Al-Cu alloy sheet...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article discusses the properties, primary and secondary production, product forms and applications of various grades of lead and lead-base alloys with the aid of several tables and illustrations. It lists the Unified Numbering System (UNS) designations for various pure lead grades...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... engineering fields such as food, pharmaceutical, chemical, mining, metallurgical industries, and so on. Traditionally, powder can be produced by crushing and grinding from large pieces of substances such as rocks, spray drying of liquid such as milk, or atomization of molten metals. The types of powder that...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003094
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... available types of hot-rolled and cold-rolled plain carbon steel sheet and strip Quality or temper Applicable basic specification number SAE-AISE grade designation Surface finish Temper-rolled; for exposed parts (a) Annealed last; for unexposed parts (a) Description Symbol Description...
Book Chapter

By John C. Bittence
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the highest quality. Identification and sorting of the metals is the key to profitable and successful recycling. The ideal situation is the scrap stream that provides a flow of one particular grade of metal or alloy from the primary producer, through the consumer, and back to the producer for...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...-pressed and sintered Hot isostatically pressed (HIP) metal/oxide composite Cold-pressed oxide-based ceramic grades are composed mostly of Al 2 O 3 with small amounts of other oxides and compounds that promote toughness. Typically, the cold-pressed grade is used for work materials with a hardness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... products—all grades Steel products 1992 1991 Tons (a) % Tons (a) % Ingots and steel for castings 215 0.3 244 0.3 Blooms, slabs, billets 2,255 2.7 2,305 2.9 Wire rods 4,511 5.5 4,366 5.5 Structural shapes (≥75 mm, or 3 in.) 5,081 6.2 5,245 6.7 Steel piling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... extremely smooth finishes requires several progressive polishing steps with finer abrasives until pumice or rough types of abrasive are applied. With the softer grades of titanium, such as unalloyed material, fine polishing requires more time and care to prevent scratching. The harder alloy grades can be...