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focusing optic position

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005618
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
...-peening processes of which emphasis is placed on thermal laser cutting. It details the principal set-up parameters, such as the laser beam output, nozzle design, focusing optic position and characteristics, assist gases, surface conditions, and cutting speed. A discussion on the types of gas, supply...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of the focusing optics increases, depth of focus also increases. However, this is also accompanied by an increased beam diameter and decreased power density. As a result, these variables must be optimized for each particular application. A common practice in determining the focal position and depth of focus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... optical energy source called a laser as the source of heat. Laser is an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. The coherent nature of the laser beam allows it to be focused to a small spot, leading to high energy densities of 10 5 to 10 7 W/cm 2 (6 × 10 5 to 6 × 10 7 W...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... to an optic. When incident on an optic with a positive focal length, a collimated beam will form a focus near the focal distance. A collimated beam is a beam with little divergence at the plane where it is incident upon the optic. So, typically, a collimated beam is first generated and then focused...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
...-focusing optic assembly. Alternatively, the laser beam axis can be tilted while the GMAW torch is positioned normal to the work. Another reported difference between the two process orientations is in penetration. If the laser beam is positioned in the arc depression of the GMAW process, the arc-leading...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... acoustical holography liquid-surface acoustical holography optical holography scanning acoustical holography sleeve-bearing stock through-transmission breast imaging system ACOUSTICAL HOLOGRAPHY is the extension of holography into the ultrasonic domain. The principles of acoustical holography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article is intended to provide the reader with a good understanding of the underlying science, technology, and the most common applications of focused ion beam (FIB) instruments. It begins with a survey of the various types of FIB instruments and their configurations, discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... in the specimen chamber or in the electron-optics column collect and report resultant signal intensity as a function of beam position. The SEM operator uses a computer to control the electron-optics, detectors, and a motorized stage for sample positioning. During SEM operation, a support system provides cooling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... In typical samples that do not have polished, optically reflective surfaces, a mirrored plastic block, or coverslip, is placed in close proximity to the surface and is acoustically coupled with fluid. The laser is focused onto the bottom surface of the coverslip, which has an acoustic pattern...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... as stereomicroscope illuminators and fiber optic sources are very useful for illuminating small objects. If the fiber optic source can be positioned close to the object, more uniform illumination will be obtained without a focusing lens on the end of the fiber bundle. The most uniform illumination can be obtained...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... of the four detectors shown in Fig. 1 . The shadowing contrast on the picture when using the secondary electron signal will be similar to the optical case in which the eye is positioned at the detector and a light is shone on the sample surface along the line of the electron beam. That is, the side...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... LASER BEAM WELDING (LBW) uses high-density coherent optical energy, such that the coherent nature of the laser beam allows it to be focused to a small spot, leading to high energy densities of 10 5 to 10 7 W/cm 2 (6 × 10 5 to 6 × 10 7 W/in. 2 ). Until the 1970s, laser welding had been restricted...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... Because laser light is highly monochromatic and parallel, it can be focused to a spot size that is limited primarily by diffraction and focusing optics ( Ref 2 ). The 1500 W CO 2 laser may be focused into a circle 0.15 mm (0.006 in.) in diameter, resulting in a power density of more than 1.0 × 10 11 W/m...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in the shaft. These three basic tube designs can have either fixed or adjustable focusing of the objective lens at the distal tip. The distal tip also has prisms and mirrors that define the direction and field of view (see Fig. 2 ). Generally, a fiber optic light guide and a lamp producing white light...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... These three basic tube designs can have either fixed or adjustable focusing of the objective lens at the distal tip. The distal tip also has prisms and mirrors that define the direction and field of view (see Fig. 2 ). Generally, a fiber optic light guide and a lamp producing white light is used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... that the optical ray path length from object point to focused image point should always be the same. This naturally implies that the focus for marginal rays is nearer to the lens than the focus for paraxial rays (those that are almost parallel to the axis). Again, a disc of least confusion exists at the best...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
...-garnet. Courtesy of R.P. Martukanitz Fig. 3 Schematic showing fiber delivery of a 1 μm wavelength laser source to the focusing optics in the processing head. The beam is “launched” from the laser, focused onto the end of the fiber, transmitted through the fiber, and recollimated and focused...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... used with a copper x-ray tube), a primary beam monochromator, or focusing optics or mirrors. Regardless of the method used, there will be a loss in intensity of the desired characteristic radiation. Large beamline facilities that have synchrotron radiation capabilities can provide a near...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.9781627081771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... lens. Different wavelengths cause each of the three primary colors to be focused at a different point along the optical axis. Fig. 12 Lateral chromatic aberration. As focal length is varied, magnification changes, altering image size. Spherical aberration ( Fig. 13 ) occurs when light...