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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...-follow method ( Fig. 3 ) involves the use of a moving lens to try to keep a spot of light focused on the surface. The lens movement correlates to the profile of the surface and its vertical movement is controlled by an electric motor. The analog electrical signal generated to drive the motor is digitized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract Several methods are developed for the numerical solution of partial differential equations, namely, meshed-solution methods such as the finite-element method (FEM), finite-difference method, and boundary-element method; and numerical algorithms consisting of so-called meshed-solution...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Finishing refers to a wide variety of processes that generally involve material removal in one form or another to generate surfaces with specific geometries, tolerances, and functional or decorative characteristics. This article discusses four major finishing methods, namely, abrasive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... locally a few degrees in 2θ, are employed to increase data throughput and to collect larger sections of the diffraction cones. Fig. 15 Powder diffraction pattern of NaCl Geometric focusing results in effective use of beam intensity. The Guinier method uses a crystal monochromator to focus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract This article provides information on the application of nondestructive examination (NDE) technologies to tube and pipe products. These include modeling and simulation methods, eddy-current methods, magnetic methods, acoustic methods, and physical methods. A summary of nondestructive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... applications. It discusses the mathematics behind classical beamforming, full matrix capture, and total focusing methods of imaging. The article shows how ultrasonic array data can be simulated by direct numerical methods (most commonly using finite-element methods), analytical methods, or hybrid methods. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... inspection methods are discussed in the following sections. The related topic of sizing and imaging is considered in the article “Ultrasonic Imaging and Sizing” in this Volume. In pulse-echo inspection, short bursts of ultrasonic energy (pulses) are introduced into a test piece at regular...
Book Chapter

By Peter J. Blau
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... methods begins with an assessment of the type of wear involved in each problem area. Having a structure to classify wear types can make this process easier, and one such structure is provided in this article. Wear testing is performed for one or more of the following reasons: to screen materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... a given accuracy. Among the most important of these advances has been the development of faster methods for solving implicit difference approximations (see the following section). A third enabler for three-dimensional CFD has been the formation of improved finite-volume and finite-element methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... overview of all the various methods and approaches that can be used in characterizing semiconductor materials; consequently, the focus is on the most commonly available techniques and those that are covered in the later sections of this Volume. As a class of materials, semiconductors are defined not by...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... microscopy (TEM), in which resolutions in the range of 0.2 nm (2 Å) are attainable and the depth of focus is such that the image is, in effect, a two-dimensional projection of a three-dimensional object. The electrons can be focused to produce an approximately parallel, coherent beam of 2 to 6 μm (80 to 240...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the various technology drivers for finishing methods, namely, tolerance, consistency, surface quality, and productivity. Every finishing method may be viewed as a manufacturing system consisting of four input categories: machine tool, processing tool, work...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Probability of detection (POD) assesses the performance of a non-destructive evaluation (NDE)-based inspection, which is a method used to determine the capability of an inspection as a function of defect type and defect size. This article provides an overview of the concept of POD, why...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract In the handling of molten aluminum, it is fairly common to use filters as a part of the melting unit and in the gating and/or riser system. This article describes the methods of in-furnace and in-mold filtration, with emphasis on the filtration of molten aluminum. It discusses the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Ultrasonic inspection is a nondestructive method in which beams of high-frequency acoustic energy are introduced into a material to detect surface and subsurface flaws, to measure the thickness of the material, and to measure the distance to a flaw. This article provides a detailed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... easily inspected with conventional single-element transducers. Fig. 2 (a) Beam-focusing and (b) beam-steering effects of a linear phased array The eddy-current inspection method is based on the principle of electromagnetic induction, where eddy currents are induced in a conductive material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., wood, paint (a) PT, liquid penetrant test; MT, magnetic-particle test; IR, infrared; UV, ultraviolet This article focuses on the typical NDE techniques that may be considered when conducting a failure investigation. The coverage includes the various methods of surface inspection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... process data needed for accurate heat treatment simulation and methods for their determination. Section 5 focuses on the methods for validating heat treatment simulations, with a special emphasis on the underlying philosophy for selection and design of validation tests. Section 6 aims to demonstrate the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... than stainless) 4,101 5.0 3,917 5.0 (a) Thousands of net tons. Source: American Iron and Steel Institute Following a brief review of the classification of steels, this article will review the following: Cleaning methods Finishing methods Conversion coatings Hot dip...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Abrasive finishing is a method where a large number of multipoint or random cutting edges are coupled with abrasive grains as a bond or matrix material for effective removal of material at smaller chip sizes. This article provides a broad overview of the various categories of abrasive...