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fluoborate plating solutions

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... solution concentrates Table 3 Composition of fluoborate alloy plating solution concentrates Constituent Amount wt% g/L oz/gal Lead fluoborate Lead fluoborate, Pb(BF 4 ) 2 51.0 893 119 Lead, Pb (a) 27.7 485 65 Fluoboric acid, free HBF 4 0.6 10.5 1.4 Boric acid...
Book Chapter

By George B. Rynne
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... fluoborate and fluoboric acid contain free boric acid to ensure bath stability. An anode bag filled with boric acid in each corner of the plating tank is recommended to maintain a stable level of boric acid in the bath solution. The concentration of boric acid in the bath is not critical and can vary from 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... corrosion resistance when plated on aluminum, copper-base alloys, and steel, which are typically selected for their engineering properties. Indium can be readily electrodeposited from either acid or alkaline solutions. It is particularly useful for coating aluminum and other amphoteric metals; its alkaline...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... COPPER can be electrodeposited from numerous electrolytes. Cyanide and pyrophosphate alkalines, plus sulfate and fluoborate acid baths, are the primary electrolytes used in copper plating. Alkaline Cyanide Plating Baths Alkaline cyanide copper solutions are used to plate the initial deposits...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... COPPER can be electrodeposited from numerous electrolytes. Cyanide and pyrophosphate alkalines, plus sulfate and fluoborate acid baths, are the primary electrolytes used in copper plating. HARD CHROMIUM PLATING is produced by electrodeposition from a solution containing chromic acid (CrO 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Compositions and operating conditions of acid copper plating baths Table 4 Compositions and operating conditions of acid copper plating baths Constituent or condition Copper sulfate bath Copper fluoborate bath General Printed circuit through-hole Low copper High copper Bath...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... Cathode current density is 1 to 10 A/dm 2 (10 to 100 A/ft 2 ). (a) Phenolsulfonic acid is most often used. Cresolsulfonic acid performs equally well and is a constituent of some proprietary solutions. Composition and operating conditions for fluoborate tin (acidic) plating electrolyte Table 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... electroformed metal, is plated from Watts, fluoborate, and sulfamate solutions. The last is the most widely used due to lower stresses in the deposits and ease of operation. Nickel is deposited from most baths with moderate to high tensile stress. If uncontrolled, this stress can make removal of the mandrel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Typical iron plating solutions Table 1 Typical iron plating solutions Bath type Composition pH Temperature, °C Current density Component g/L Molarity A/m 2 A/ft 2 Sulfate Fe ++ 48 0.86 2.8–3.5 32–65 215–430 20–40 (a) 240 0.86 Double sulfate Fe ++ 36...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... the steel and the cadmium anodes will accelerate chemical dissolution of the anodes when the current is off. When cadmium is plated from an acid solution, such as the fluoborate bath, ball anodes in uncoated steel cages cannot be used, because the steel would dissolve. Rather, bar anodes of elliptical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of the nickel specified. Results of several test programs have raised doubt about whether coating systems involving regular chromium are satisfactory for SC 4 and SC 3. Other nickel plating solutions and some properties of the deposits Table 6 Other nickel plating solutions and some properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006511
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... brightening processes in terms of performance and economy. The article describes the phosphoric-nitric acid baths and phosphoric-sulfuric acid baths used for chemical brightening. Solution compositions and operating conditions for three commercial electropolishing processes, as well as for suitable post...
Book Chapter

By A. Sato
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Plating Brighteners Alkaline Noncyanide Baths Operating Parameters of Standard Cyanide and Midcyanide Zinc Solutions Operating Parameters of Low-Cyanide Zinc Systems Operating Parameters of Alkaline Noncyanide Zinc Baths Acid Baths Operating Parameters of Acid Chloride Zinc Baths...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... fluoborate and dimethylformamide/water solutions ( Ref 46 ). Like many chromium alloys that were plated from similar solutions, it was difficult to sustain a reasonable rate of deposition. Consequently, only thin films (with controlled composition) could be obtained. Chromium-molybdenum alloy coatings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... solutions for final or near-final preparation of metal surfaces before plating, painting, or storage. Mixtures of 70 wt% phosphoric acid, 5 wt% ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, and 25 wt% water are used for removing grease, oil, drawing compounds, and light rust from iron and steel. This mixture...
Book Chapter

By Alan Blair
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Plating solutions for silver Table 1 Plating solutions for silver Component/Parameter Rack Barrel Silver as KAg(CN) 2 , g/L (oz/gal) 15–40 (2.0–2.5) 5–20 (0.7–2.5) Potassium cyanide (free), g/L (oz/gal) 12–120 (1.6–16) 25–75 (3.3–10) Potassium carbonate (min), g/L (oz/gal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., and coating of aluminum. These include abrasive blast cleaning, barrel finishing, polishing, buffing, satin finishing, chemical cleaning, chemical brightening, electrolytic brightening, chemical etching, alkaline etching, acid etching, chemical conversion coating, electroplating, immersion plating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Corrosion of titanium in sulfuric acid pickle baths Table 2 Corrosion of titanium in sulfuric acid pickle baths A nitric-hydrofluoric acid solution, which is the final stage brightening in most alloy cleaning lines, should be maintained at a minimum ratio of 15 parts nitric acid to 1 part...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., the most commonly employed is the sulfur print, used to reveal the distribution of sulfur in a steel product. A smoothly ground disk, carefully cleaned, is covered by a sheet of photographic paper that has been soaked for 1 to 5 min in an aqueous 2% sulfuric acid solution (1 to 5% solutions can be used...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... print, used to reveal the distribution of sulfur in a steel product. A smoothly ground disk, carefully cleaned, is covered by a sheet of photographic paper that has been soaked for 1 to 5 min in an aqueous 2% sulfuric acid solution (1 to 5% solutions can be used). The excess solution is allowed to drip...