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fluoborate baths

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Compositions and operating conditions of acid copper plating baths Table 4 Compositions and operating conditions of acid copper plating baths Constituent or condition Copper sulfate bath Copper fluoborate bath General Printed circuit through-hole Low copper High copper Bath...
Book Chapter

By George B. Rynne
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract Lead has been deposited from a variety of electrolytes, including fluoborates, fluosilicates, sulfamates, and methane sulfonic acid baths. This article provides a discussion on these electrolytic baths and includes information on the process sequence, equipment requirements...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Copper can be electrodeposited from numerous electrolytes. Cyanide and pyrophosphate alkalines, along with sulfate and fluoborate acid baths, are the primary electrolytes used in copper plating. This article provides information on the chemical composition, plating baths...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Copper can be electrodeposited from numerous electrolytes. Cyanide and pyrophosphate alkalines, along with sulfate and fluoborate acid baths, are the primary electrolytes used in copper plating. This article provides information on the chemical composition, plating baths, and operating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... addition agent. As a last resort, carbon treat. Burning Too high a current density Lower amperage. Too low a metal content Add stannous fluoborate or lead fluoborate. Low acid content Add fluoboric acid. Wrong alloy composition Incorrect bath composition Adjust bath composition. Wrong...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... are required when current density is high (above 215 A/m 2 , or 20 A/ft 2 ). Concentration of commercial noncyanide cadmium plating baths Table 2 Concentration of commercial noncyanide cadmium plating baths Bath Proprietary (a) Fluoborate (b) Acid sulfate (c) g/L oz/gal g/L oz/gal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...) Sulfate bath Ferrous sulfate, g/L (oz/gal) 240 (32) pH 2.8–3.5 Temperature, °C (°F) 32–65 (90–150) Current density, max, A/dm 2 (A/ft 2 )  at 32 °C (90 °F) 4.3 (40)  at 65 °C (150 °F) 10 (100) Surface tension, dynes/cm 40 Cathode agitation Desirable Fluoborate bath...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... and reduction of fatigue strength are not dissipated as heat treating temperature approaches stress-relieving temperature. Nonmechanical Cleaning Nonmechanical cleaning methods applicable to cast irons include molten salt bath cleaning, pickling, and chemical cleaning, with the latter method including...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... is high. Special thanks are due to Joseph Mazia, Mazia Tech-Com Services, Inc., and James Slattery, Indium Corporation of America, for their helpful review comments and suggestions. The four most commonly used indium plating baths are indium cyanide, indium fluoborate, indium sulfamate, and indium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... 140 100 68 51 41 34 26 20 Note: Values are based on 95.5% cathode efficiency. Nickel electroplating solutions Table 2 Nickel electroplating solutions Electrolyte composition, (a) g/L Watts nickel Nickel sulfamate Typical semibright bath (b) Nickel sulfate, NiSO 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., because each meets a specific need. The solution conductivity that is lost because of the lower metal content in the high-throwing-power bath is compensated for by the higher concentration of fluoboric acid. The lower total metal in the solution reduces the variance in deposit thickness that is usually...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Typical iron plating solutions Table 1 Typical iron plating solutions Bath type Composition pH Temperature, °C Current density Component g/L Molarity A/m 2 A/ft 2 Sulfate Fe ++ 48 0.86 2.8–3.5 32–65 215–430 20–40 (a) 240 0.86 Double sulfate Fe ++ 36...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006511
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... (a) Fluoboric acid 2.5 wt% Temperature of bath 30 °C (85 °F) Current density 1–2 A/dm 2 (10–20 A/ft 2 ) Voltage 15–30 V Immersion time 5–10 min Agitation None Smut removal Phosphoric acid 1.0 wt% Chromic acid 0.5 wt% Temperature of bath 90–95 °C (190–200 °F) Immersion...
Book Chapter

By A. Sato
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... incorporating metals such as nickel and cobalt, to improve corrosion for specific applications and possibly eliminate standard chromate treating. A number of zinc baths based on zinc sulfate and zinc fluoborate have been developed, but these have very limited applications. They are used principally for high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Technology options for the deposition of chromium-base alloys Table 1 Technology options for the deposition of chromium-base alloys Type of bath Aqueous Acid Alkaline Nonaqueous Organic Molten salt Applied current None (electroless) Conventional direct...
Book Chapter

By Alan Blair
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... , Farr J.P.G. , and Street J. , What Chance the Elimination of Cyanide? , Trans. Inst. Met. Finish. , Vol 69 ( No. 3 ), p 8 – 10 • “Bath for Electroplating of Precious Metal Alloys,” German Patent No. DE 2445538 , 1976 • Blair A. , Formulating High Speed Gold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... or from sulfate or fluoborate acid baths. For compositions and operating conditions of tin electrolytes, see the article “Tin Plating” in this Volume. The 40 to 50% Sn alloy, speculum metal, has been used as a decorative coating because of its silverlike color. The bronze alloy coatings containing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... to avoid the hazards that attend the use of hydrofluoric acid. Fluoboric and fluosilicic acids may also be used as alternates to hydrofluoric acid. An alkaline bath, such as Alupol, can also be used for chemical etching. This bath consists of 20 kg (44 lb) sodium nitrate, 15 kg (33 lb) sodium nitrite, 25...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... and gases ( Ref 17 ). These waste streams are not only highly aggressive toward the process equipment but pose significant health and safety hazards for the operator. The toxic and carcinogenic effects of hexavalent chromium baths for hard-chromium plating are well established. The effluent gaseous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., as well as forming lubricants, can be removed by proprietary water solutions of strong caustic compounds, or by the use of molten alkaline-based salt baths. The salt baths operate at temperatures of 650 to 705 °C (1200 to 1300 °F) and must be used carefully according to manufacturer instructions. Salt...