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fluid-forming presses

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003973
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... constant load over a long stroke. Within the capacity of a hydraulic press, the maximum load can be limited to protect the tooling. It is not possible to exceed the set load because a pressure-release valve limits the fluid pressure acting on the ram. Within the limits of the machine, the ram speed...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... high pressures and low speeds involved, lubrication is of the boundary type. The three principle fluids (water, oil, and synthetic fluid) that comprise the primary ingredients of sheet metal forming lubricants are combined with additives to achieve the desired operating characteristics. Table 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003974
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... because oil is more compressible than a water emulsion. Approach and initial deformation speeds are higher in accumulator-drive presses. This improves hot-forging conditions by reducing die contact times, but wear in the hydraulic elements of the system also increases. Wear is a function of fluid...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... provide relative guidance between the moving upper and lower assemblies. After the blow, hydraulic fluid enters the cylinder, returning the upper and lower rams to their starting positions. The gas is recompressed by the floating pistons, and the gas seals at the lower edges of the drive pistons are...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the castings with a pressurized fluid, usually argon gas, while simultaneously heating the castings to a temperature that is below the solidus but high enough to maximize plastic flow and enhance atom/vacancy diffusion within the material. Under the simultaneous influence of hydrostatic pressure and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... affecting die life and explains the effect of thread form on processing. It provides information on various fluids used in thread rolling to cool the dies and the work and to improve the finish on the rolled products. The article provides a comparison between thread rolling and cutting, as well as between...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... process used to form ceramic components from a dry powder by uniform pressing from all directions. It is also used with many other materials, such as metals, plastics, graphite, and carbon. The process is accomplished by enclosing the powder in a deformable mold and then collapsing that mold using a fluid...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... the aspect ratio of the reinforcement increase ( Ref 56 ). For example, the sintered density of SiC-reinforced Al 2 O 3 decreases as the aspect ratio of the whisker increases ( Ref 57 ). Some form of hot pressing is...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... an optimized gating system will be made easier by the application of several fundamental principles of fluid flow. The article illustrates the Bernoulli's theorem, the law of continuity, and the effect of momentum. Most casting alloys are subject to the presence of particles that can deleteriously...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... reinforcement or finned for heat conduction or dissipation; frames and boxlike parts; cylindrical or spherical tanks for containment of gases or fluids; brackets; pistons; wheels; disks; impellers; bulkheads; and clamps. The list of forms produced is nearly endless, and many such parts have a multitude of cored...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... newton per square meter (N/m 2 ), which is named the pascal (Pa). The standard atmospheric pressure is defined as 14.696 psia, which equals 101,325 Pa. An unknown pressure can be measured by comparing it to a known pressure using a U-tube filled with a fluid. Absolute pressure can be measured with a...
Book Chapter

By Erhard Klar
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.../M) is a small but important branch of metallurgy that comprises the manufacture of metal powders and articles from powders through forming and sintering. In its most basic and widely used form, it consists of pressing a powder to the desired shape, followed by heating at an elevated temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... normal to the tool surface. In hydrostatic extrusion, a fluid film between the billet and the die exerts pressure on the deforming billet ( Fig. 1c ). The hydrostatic extrusion process is primarily used when conventional lubrication is inadequate, for example, in the extrusion of special alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... production of wire, while concepts covered below are generally applicable to the various forming operations and specifically those dealing with extrusion. Hydrostatic extrusion involves extruding a billet through a die using fluid pressure instead of a ram, which is used in conventional extrusion. Figure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.9781627081979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... titanium alloy UNALLOYED TITANIUM is highly resistant to corrosion by many natural environments, including seawater, body fluids, and fruit and vegetable juices. Titanium is used extensively for handling salt solutions (including chlorides, hypochlorides, sulfates, and sulfides), wet chlorine gas, and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., standard marking systems, abrasives, and bonding types. It compares bonded wheel grinding with abrasive belt grinding. The article reviews the types of grinding fluids and discusses their importance in grinding operations. It describes the specific grinding processes and provides recommendations for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... that form are dried very quickly, which results in almost perfectly shaped microspheres. This process is used to make catalysts for fluid catalytic cracking (FCC). The average life of an FCC catalyst during use is about 6 mo, during which it experiences temperatures as high as 750 °C (1380 °F...
Book Chapter

By Peter J. Blau
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., higher vibration levels, or fluid leakage. Thus, it is not always possible to directly relate numerical wear data obtained in laboratory studies to component behavior. Alternative criteria for wear acceptability include the appearance (roughness) of the contact surface and the ranking of reference...