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fluid viscosity

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006356
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
..., and transmission fluids. viscosity polyalphaolefins physical properties passenger car motor oils heavy-duty engine oil industrial lubricants food-grade lubricants greases transportation gear oils compressor oils hydraulic fluids transmission fluids POLYALPHAOLEFINS (PAOs) have been used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... in petroleum-base stocks, with respect to molecular species and refining techniques, gives rise to oils of differing physical and chemical properties. Essentially all oils are additive-enhanced for both viscosity retention and performance improvement. Synthetic hydrocarbon fluids (SHC) are manufactured...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
.... In gasoline-engine oils, ASTM sequence IIIE (viscosity increase) and VE (sludge and varnish formation) engine tests are used to determine the effectiveness of antiwear additives. The general effectiveness of these additives in metalworking fluids is determined using the Timken, four-ball, and Falex tests...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005898
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
.... The article illustrates the application of the basic equations and approaches formulated for electromagnetic field and melt turbulent flow for the numerical study of an induction crucible furnace. computational fluid dynamics discretization finite volume method fluid viscosity induction crucible...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002128
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... this relationship because the lubricating properties influence the amount of heat generated Cooling efficiency can be reduced by the heat transfer characteristics of high-viscosity fluids. High cutting speeds can initially improve the cooling because the viscosity of the cutting fluid decreases with temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... Symbol Symbol c sonic velocity V characteristic of average fluid velocity D diffusivity α thermal diffusivity D ′ diameter of pipe β volumetric thermal expansion g acceleration of gravity λ mean free path L characteristic length μ fluid viscosity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... be broken. When this carbon-carbon bond scission occurs, then the average molecular weight decreases. This mechanical degradation of the quenchant will result is a corresponding decrease in the viscosity of the solution. Because heat-transfer rates are a direct function of the viscosity of the fluid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... v x d y = η γ ˙ where τ yx , is shear stress, η is viscosity, v x is velocity, and γ ˙ is shear rate. For Newtonian fluid, viscosity is only a function of temperature, and does not depend on shear rate. Most liquid metals and alloys are Newtonian. However...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... to allow further melting of higher-temperature constituents. Stirring can be done anytime during the melting process, but more efficient stirring is accomplished when the melt is at lower temperature or higher glass viscosity. When the glass is more viscous than fluid, the stirrer(s) can stretch and break...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... on the difference of the pipe discharge height versus the suction tank fluid surface height Fluid viscosity if different from water The steps to select the proper size of a centrifugal pump are: Determine the necessary flow rate. Determine the static head. Determine the friction head...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
..., and construction equipment. The viscosity and frictional properties of these fluids are critical to their performance. Both SAE International and OEM performance specifications are used to describe these fluids ( Ref 9 ). Power Steering Fluid Power steering fluid performance requirements are established...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... polyalkylene glycol polymer quenchants polyvinyl alcohol polyvinyl pyrrolidone quenching steel QUENCHING OF STEEL is the rapid cooling of steel from a suitable elevated temperature. This generally is accomplished by immersion of the hot steel into a vaporizable fluid such as water; petroleum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... fluid viscosity, thus affecting EHD conditions and the ability of the lubricating fluid to maintain separation of the contacting pairs. The development of the EHD/EHL theory ( Ref 17 ) comes from the work of Mohrenstein-Ertel between 1939 and 1945 with his first publications, Hydrodynamic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... in the fluid-film regime is mostly dictated by the viscosity of the lubricant. For counterconformal contacts, the elastohydrodynamic (thin-film) mode of lubrication is recognized near the start of the hydrodynamic regime. Because of the extremely high pressure in the conjunction, the pressure-viscosity...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... is the fluid density, and μ is the fluid viscosity. Fill rates having Re > 10,000 should be avoided. It should be noted that most commercial codes assume laminar flow or a two-equation turbulent model such as a k -ε model. Different free surface flow behavior occurs with each of these models. Further...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., and the material ceases to deform when equilibrium is reached. In a viscous fluid, however, shear stress is proportional to the time rate of strain. The proportionality factor for the viscous fluid is the dynamic, or absolute, viscosity: (Eq 5) τ = μ d u d y where τ is the shear stress, μ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... motion of the medium and varying velocity, path lengths, and trajectories of individual milling bodies. Milling fluid viscosity also affects collision rate. Generally, the size and density of the milling medium selected are determined by the n and fracture resistance for metals. For hard, brittle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
..., welding integrity, corrosion of equipment and parts, recycling and disposal costs, and operator health and safety. Carriers (Bases) The chemical components of the lubricant consist of a combination of a carrier (base) with various additives. Different lubricants have different viscosities: fluids...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of the fluid that affect erosion rates. One investigator, however, considered fluid viscosity, vapor pressure, surface tension, and specific gravity for water, gasoline, and the sodium- potassium eutectic ( Ref 21 ). The temperature dependence of erosion rates was attributed to the effects of velocity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... conductivity, viscosity, specific heat, density, and surface tension. It reviews wetting and boiling heat-transfer characteristics of nanofluids as quenchants and highlights the importance of using nanofluids as effective quench media for the hardening process during heat treatment. The article describes...