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flow and thermodynamics

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article introduces the fundamental concepts of chemical thermodynamics and chemical kinetics in describing presolidification phenomena. For metallurgical systems, the most important thermodynamic variables are enthalpy and Gibbs free energy. A qualitative demonstration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... d V While the First Law establishes the relationship between the heat absorbed and the work performed by a system, it places no restriction on the source of the heat or its flow direction. This restriction, however, is set by the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which was advanced by Rudolf...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
..., such as thermophysical and physical properties, temperature- and strain-rate-dependent mechanical properties, properties for use in the modeling of quench distortion, and properties for use in solidification modeling, is also reviewed. The article also describes the linking of thermodynamic, kinetic, and material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... applications are presented. casting casting defects ductile cast iron hot tearing macrosegregation microstructure porosity solidification thermophysical properties CASTING AND SOLIDIFICATION PROCESSES are modeled in terms of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid flow, stress, defect formation...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article discusses selected highlights of thermodynamic relationships during solidification and nucleation kinetics behavior in connection with the basis of nucleation treatments, such as grain refinement and inoculation, to provide a summary of nucleation phenomena during casting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... equilibria. The article summarizes a rapid method to obtain a thermodynamic description of a multicomponent system. It also provides information on thermodynamically calculated phase diagrams. phase diagram binary stable phase equilibria partition coefficients phase diagram modeling A PHASE...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract The nitriding process typically involves the introduction of nitrogen into the surface-adjacent zone of a component, usually at a temperature between 500 and 580 deg C. This article provides an overview of the essential aspects of the thermodynamics and kinetics of nitriding...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article examines critical features of four key areas of modeling transport phenomena associated with casting processes. These include heat and species transport in a metal alloy, flow of the liquid metal, tracking of the free metal-gas surface, and inducement of metal flow via...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... by the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which was advanced by Rudolf Clausius and William Thomson (Lord Kelvin). The Second Law says that “the spontaneous flow of heat always is from the higher temperature body to the lower temperature body.” In other words, “all naturally occurring processes tend to take place...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003374
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Abstract Fiber-matrix adhesion is a variable to be optimized in order to get the best properties and performance in composite materials. This article schematically illustrates fiber matrix interphase for composite materials. It discusses thermodynamics of interphase in terms of surface energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract This article describes the integration of thermodynamic modeling, mobility database, and phase-transformation crystallography into phase-field modeling and its combination with transformation texture modeling to predict phase equilibrium, phase transformation, microstructure evolution...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article presents a detailed account on the process flow, composition, alternative sources, and the advancement of ironmaking, steelmaking and secondary steelmaking practices. Some steels, such as bearing steels, heat-resistant steels, ultrahigh strength missile and aircraft steels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... method. Vienna University of Technology, Austria http://www.wien2k.at/index.html Table 2 Atomistic simulations (molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo) Inputs: interaction scheme, potentials, methodologies, benchmarks. Outputs: thermodynamics, reaction pathways, structures, point defect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Convection Loop Corrosion Tests of 316 Stainless Steel and IN800 in Molten Nitrate Salts,” SAND-81-8210, Sandia National Laboratory , Feb 1982 10. Baes C.F. Jr. , “The Chemistry and Thermodynamics of Molten Salt Reactor Fuels,” Paper presented at the AIME Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... dependent on the fluid flow and thermophysical processes occurring on the liquid-solid interface. Variation of temperature in the component is the major driving force for the phase transformations. On heating and cooling, the thermodynamic stability of the parent phase(s) is altered, which results...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... associated with that. The article describes the advantages and disadvantages of various finite-element modeling approaches, namely, transient models, continuous cutting model, steady-state model, hybrid model, two-dimensional models, and three-dimensional models. It discusses flow stress measurements using...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Abstract Electroslag welding (ESW) and electrogas welding (EGW) are two related procedures that are used to weld thick-section materials in the vertical or near-vertical position between retaining shoes. This article discusses the fundamentals of the electroslag process in terms of heat flow...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... temperatures, but above −100 °C (−150 °F) hydrogen may severely embrittle titanium. The potential for embrittlement is enhanced where hydrogen flow rates are high or where coatings on the titanium become damaged. In unalloyed titanium and many titanium alloys, weld zones are just as resistant to corrosion...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... will degrade casting properties. Finally, if the plunger speed is too fast, the preform can be deformed on infiltration. A threshold pressure is required to initiate melt flow through a fibrous preform or powder bed. This pressure begins in the thermodynamic surface energy barrier because of nonwetting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... approaches. The most significant of these is fluidized bed combustion, in which the solid fuel (or, less commonly, liquid fuel) is injected into a bed of particles through which air is blown from beneath; at a certain flow velocity the bed becomes fluidized and behaves like a liquid; both the chemical mixing...