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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... removal of the core. (b) Polished-and-etched surface showing crack, slag, and lack of fusion Fig. 20 Crack along the web-flange weld toe at the end reaction. Fig. 21 Cracking in floor-beam-girder connection plates. (a) Cracks in the outside web surface. (b) Cracks from the inside web...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006741
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
...Abstract Abstract The aluminum alloy 7099 is a Kaiser aluminum high-strength Al-Mg-Zn-Cu alloy with zirconium that offers a less quench-sensitive alloy for properties in thicker sections for airframe structures such as wing ribs, spars, and skins, as well as fuselage frames and floor beams...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
...Abstract Abstract Alloy 2055 is an Al-Cu-Li alloy developed as a replacement for high-strength 7xxx and 2xxx alloys in applications such as fuselage stringers and floor beams. This datasheet provides information on its key alloy metallurgy and illustrates the damage tolerance of 2055-T84...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... Alloy 2196 ( Table 1 ) is a higher Li-containing alloy registered in 2000 for various aircraft extrusion parts. The alloy is considered in a standard T8 temper for a range of thinner parts such as seat rails and fuselage stiffeners, as well as thicker sections such as floor beams and wing stringers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... components Raked wing tip, nacelle components Floor beams, nacelle components Propeller blades Examples of advanced composites use and associated weight savings in commercial aircraft Table 2 Examples of advanced composites use and associated weight savings in commercial aircraft Model...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006745
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... , and material performance is compared with alloy 7175 in Figs. 1 and 2 . Alloy 7349-T6511 and T76511 thin extrusions are particularly suited for stiffening structures such as fuselage panels in the form of high-strength stringers. They are also recommended for seat tracks and floor beams, which require...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... (>1.0) S-T 241 (35) 7075-T7351 25–50 (1.0–2.0) S-T 295 (43) Alloy 2099 extrusions are used in numerous commercial aerospace applications including wing stringers and floor beams. Alloy 2099 extrusions are available in two tempers from 1.3–76 mm (0.05–3.00 in.) thickness. Alloy 2099...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... prevents moisture ingress to the floor structure. The improved sealing avoids the more costly, but certainly more durable solution, implemented on the 777 airplanes with the use CFRP floor beams and titanium seat tracks, materials that do not corrode. The basic tasks are to be accomplished...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
..., they are carried out in series, one discrete process step after another, which requires long floor-to-floor cycle times. With the beam-splitting feature, it is possible to change from series to parallel processing, where two or more processes are executed at the same time with one EB ( Fig. 9 ). Technically seen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... The most recent aircraft designs include graphite/epoxy solid composite laminates in primary structures such as floor beams and other critical substructures. These uses demonstrate continued confidence in the capabilities of composite materials. However, the effort needed to maintain composite components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003416
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... This tension can be advantageous because fibers in tension can have twice the strength of those in compression. (Structural beams of carbon-graphite may have more fiber on the compression side to offset this fact. Fibers are added on the compression side by winding at zero degrees and retained by overwinds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... doors, cabinetry, paneling, casework, floors, and staircases. Exterior surfaces may include wood shingles, glue-laminated beams and columns, dimensional lumber, and wood decking. Interior wood systems are often treated with sealers or primers. Clear sanding sealers are often used for clear finishes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... systems, namely, dual pinch roll drive assemblies, tractor drive assemblies, billet pusher systems, walking beam assemblies, and index/continuous conveyor systems. It also discussed the hot billet handling systems used to deliver heated billets to the forging cell. These methods include billet extractor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... operations. adhesive bonding arc welding brazing compressed gas handling cutting electric shock electrical safety electron-beam welding explosion welding eye protection face protection friction welding high-frequency welding laser-beam welding oxyfuel gas welding protective clothing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... the flame or arc radiation, vision is limited. Because eye protection interferes with their vision, welders and passersby can easily trip over objects on the floor. Therefore, management must lay out the production area so that gas hoses, cables, mechanical assemblies, and other pieces of equipment do...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... maintenance Labor, $/h 3.25 0.62 Total $14.50 $3.00 Area, m 2 8.25 4.5 Laser, chiller, and beam delivery Floor rate/month $15.75 $15.75 $/m 2 per month Per hour $0.78 $0.42 Total, $/h $15.28 $3.78 Total, $/min $0.25 $0.06 Fig. 7 Fiber optic beam delivery...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... times of polyaspartic floor coating (clear) using different ratios of polyaspartic ester resins Table 6 Dry times of polyaspartic floor coating (clear) using different ratios of polyaspartic ester resins Resin ratio Surface dry Hard dry A/B (100/0) 5 h 11 h A/B (75/25) 3 h 7 h...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005957
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., batch), and the type of energy used. An important characteristic of process heating equipment is how the load is moved in, handled, and moved out of the system. Several important types of materials-handling systems are conveyor, belts, buckets, rollers; rotary hearth furnaces; walking beam furnaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... and Sheeting Plastic film versus stiff or other solids (μ s and μ k ) D 2047 (D-21 on polishes), Static Coefficient of Friction of Polish Coated Floor Surfaces as Measured by the James Machine Flooring Materials versus shoe heels and soles (μ s and μ k ) D 2394 (D-7 on wood), Simulated Service...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002170
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... milled to produce an optimum cross section and minimum skin thickness. Spars, stringers, floor beams, and frames are frequent applications as well. Chemical milling also can be readily applied to most superalloys, and thus many applications can be found in the sizing and thinning of sheet metal...