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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... the effects of alloying elements on alpha/beta transformation. The article also discusses the heat treating procedures, and the furnaces used for heat treating titanium and titanium alloys. aging alloying differential thermal analysis method flattening heat treatment heat-treating furnaces...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... after an elevated-temperature shaping process such as casting or extrusion and for which mechanical properties have been stabilized by room-temperature aging. It also applies to products that are flattened or straightened after cooling from the shaping process, for which the effects of the cold work...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of round steel or copper tubing, with and without various supports against flattening and wrinkling. The four most common methods of bending tubing are basically the same as those used in the bending of bars: compression bending, stretch bending, draw bending, and roll bending. The method...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... ≡sheet width R ′≡flattened roll radius Hitchcock equation for flattened roll radius, R ′ R ′ = R { 1 + 16 ( 1 − ν 2 ) P L b π E ( Δ h ) } where:  ν≡Poisson's ratio of roll material  E≡Young's modulus of roll material Projected contact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... points. (b) Addition of pressure after welding current is turned off causes plastic deformation that flattens the projections. Projections may be of any practical shape that can properly concentrate the welding current. In cross-wire projection welding, the curved surfaces of two intersecting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...-tempered conditions; less accurate for cold-worked condition and for austenitic steels (a) Brinell numbers are based on the diameter of impressed indentation. If the ball distorts (flattens) during test, Brinell numbers will vary in accordance with the degree of such distortion when related to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
.... Figures 589 , 590 , and 591 show three kinds of MnS inclusions in type II MnS inclusion formations: highly elongated ( Fig. 589 ), flattened or pancaked ( Fig. 590 ), and small and round as a result of homogenization ( Fig. 591 ). SEM, Fig. 589 and 590 : 230×, Fig. 591 : 200× Fig. 592 : Alumina...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... inclusions. In hot upset powder forging, the extensive unconstrained lateral flow of material results in a stress state around the pores that is a combination of normal and shear stresses. A spherical pore becomes flattened and elongated in the direction of lateral flow. The sliding motion due to shear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... other washer was soft after an identical heat treatment and yielded under load (flattened). The microstructure of the acceptable washer was a mixture of austenite and martensite; the structure of the washer that flattened consisted almost entirely of austenite. Previous experience with 17-7 PH...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... part. Strip of closely controlled thickness used in high-speed coining machines is frequently produced by rolling from round wire. The strain history and consequent strain-hardening behavior of progressively flattened round wire are usually not known. Also, because interaction between die and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... rolls, strip-flattening rolls, wire-flattening rolls 6 Fine 92 Extrusion dies (low impact), light blanking dies 10–12 Fine to medium 90 Extrusion dies (medium impact), blanking dies, slitters 12–16 Medium 88 Corrosion-resistant grades, valves and nozzles, rotary seals, bearings 6–12...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.9781627081979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... statistically greater than the uncertainty or fluctuations in the background due to the substrate, N B , and the sample, N B,x , for detection and quantification. The result is an 8 keV x-ray from a 4 MeV proton. This is approximately the point at which the bremsstrahlung curve flattens; it generally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... preheated substrate. The molten particles impinge on the substrate, flattening and solidifying into an interlaced network of splats . The thickness of the coating is governed by the number of spray passes. Rubber, in the form of prefabricated sheets, has been used successfully as a lining material in a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... the reduction is increased, the loads on the rolled metal and thus the roll pressures increase. As a consequence, the asperities are flattened, and the real area of contact approaches the apparent area at a rate that depends on the elastic and plastic strengths of the contacting metals. The number of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... on a steel drum. A large-diameter drum is preferred in order to minimize filament length difference, which must be taken into account when the material sheet is cut, removed from the drum, and flattened out. The XMC form is highly anisotropic but is more conformable to complex geometries than are SMC...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... been applied and computerized by various investigators ( Ref 11 , Ref 12 , Ref 13 , Ref 14 , Ref 15 , Ref 16 ). Studies from the 1970s consider elastic flattening of the rolls and temperature conditions that exist in rolling ( Ref 13 , 17 ). The roll-separating force and the roll torque can be...