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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... divided into an arbitrary number of elements with flat, inclined surfaces ( Fig. 5 ). The element, illustrated in this figure, is located between the neutral and exit planes because the frictional stress τ is acting against the direction of metal flow. When this element is located between the entrance and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... machined, while wrought aluminum alloys can be machined to produce a highly reflective, flat, and smooth topography. Internal stress in the material, released after machining, can also contribute to surface deformation. The machining or finishing process itself has the greatest impact on the geometry of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... working, embedded abrasives, and poor surface flatness. Table 2 Common examples of abrasion artifacts for metals Metal Common artifacts Solution Austenitic steels Deep surface layer artifacts Extended rough polishing Zinc Mechanical twinning; Recrystallization abrasion layer Avoid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... appearance of a surface of a fatigue fracture in induction-hardened 15B28 steel. The fatigue crack originated at the hardened zone/core interface. (a) Illumination provided by a circular flash tube around the lens, resulting in a flat appearance. (b) Oblique illumination provided by photoflood lamp...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... components with controlled surface properties. Emphasis is placed on kinematically simple configurations of finishing processes, such as surface grinding, flat surface polishing, and lapping. flat surface polishing grinding lapping surface finishing surface properties thermal damage thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... modes of adhesive wear including scoring, scuffing, seizure, and galling, and describes the processes involved in classic laboratory-type and standardized tests for the evaluation of adhesive wear. It includes information on standardized galling tests, twist compression, slider-on-flat-surface, load...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... which parts and media pass. Media fall through the screen back into the vibrator bowl. Parts are deflected off the screen into a collection hopper or conveyor. Bowl vibrators with integral separation may have a non-flat-bottom base, so the dam has a shorter distance to travel. Parts and media do not...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... Small parts can be mounted on a circular plate and rotated on the lathe as an annular plate. Large, flat parts can be coated using a traversing two-axis machine. More complex shapes can be coated using robotics. Rust or other corrosion products; oils, grease, or other lubricants; paint; or other...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... closed-die forgings, including finish allowances for machining, length and width tolerances, die-wear tolerance, match tolerances, die-closure or thickness tolerances, straightness and flatness tolerances, radii tolerances, flash-extension tolerances, and surface tolerances. It also contains a convenient...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., drawing, production of flat rectangular wire, annealing, and coating, are discussed. The article also provides information on electrical insulation and jacketing techniques, including polymeric insulation, enamel insulation, and paper-and-oil insulation. continuous casting copper cable copper wire...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... abrasive blast cleaning can be performed using portable ( Fig. 28 ) or stationary ( Fig. 29a ) equipment. Portable centrifugal blast machines can be used to prepare floors in warehouse facilities, ship decks, and other large, flat surfaces. They can also be mounted to vertical surfaces such as the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... to bleed off. Ideal samples are electrically conductive and must be free of fingerprints, oils, and other high vapor pressure materials. Flat samples are preferred, but rough samples can also be accommodated. A number of other techniques are frequently used to characterize the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...× (T. O'Donnell, P. Tung, A. Shumka, R. Ruiz, and J. Okuno, California Institute of Technology) SEM fractographs of a failed electronic flat pack lead. Fig. 1332 : Cracks on both the top and bottom lead surfaces. The solder surface and post-cracking solder zone corrosion products are noted in the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... several chill rolls before being pulled by the carrier rolls and wound up. The highly polished chrome-plated surface of the first roll gives the product extremely high gloss and clarity. Fig. 16 Chill-roll film extrusion. Source: Ref 1 In flat-film extrusion, particularly at high take-off...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... as well as the three main types of wrought products: flat-rolled products, wire-drawn products, and extruded and forged products. The article also provides a section on the corrosion resistance of zinc and zinc coatings in various atmospheres. corrosion resistance galvanizing iron and steel...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article discusses the classification, characteristics and temper designations of wrought aluminum alloys. Wrought aluminum products are available as flat-rolled products such as sheets, plates, and foils; rods, bars, and wires; tubular products such as tubes and pipes; extruded...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article discusses the operating principles, types, and applications of shearing and slitting of different forms of steel, including plates, flat sheets, bars, coiled sheet and strips. In addition, it provides a detailed account of the cutting methods such as oxyfuel gas cutting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... connect, ribs, bosses, and other forged elements projecting from surfaces of the web. Webs are usually flat and coincide with the forging plane; however, they may be stepped or tilted obliquely, or they may contain curved contours and still remain basically oriented with the forging plane. Forgings that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... ¯ = 3 · τ Table 6 Formulas related to flat (sheet) rolling Variable or quantity Symbol or relation Undeformed roll radius R Rolling speed (roll surface velocity) (v R ), m/s v R = (2π R ) × (angular velocity, in revolutions per second) Initial sheet thickness h...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... inform that to ensure that forgings can be machined to correct final measurements, it is necessary to establish allowances, tolerances, and specifications for flatness and concentricity. The article also tabulates the allowances and tolerances for as-forged shafts and bars. continuous flow...