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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract The primary objectives of the rolling process are to reduce the cross section of the incoming material while improving its properties and to obtain the desired section at the exit from the rolls. This article illustrates a rolling sequence for the fabrication of bars, shapes, and flat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... affecting forgeability. It describes the forging techniques, equipment, and common processing elements associated with titanium alloy forging. The processing elements include the preparation of forging stock, preheating of the stock, die heating, lubrication, forging process, trimming and repair, cleaning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the various components of a cold-heading machine and the tools used in the cold heading process. These include headers, transfer headers, bolt makers, nut formers, and parts formers. The article explains the operations required for preparing stock for cold heading, including heat treating, drawing to...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... parts, through-transmission breast imaging system, inspection of welds in thick materials, and inspection of sleeve-bearing stock. It describes the basic system for liquid-surface acoustical holography and scanning acoustical holography. A comparison between these techniques is also provided...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... copper alloys, magnesium alloys, and titanium alloys. It provides forging process variables such as stock preparation, heating and cooling of forgings, die lubrication, trimming, and cleaning of these metals and alloys. The article explains the effect of temperature, deformation rate, and die temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract Induction heating has many different applications, such as melting, heating stock for forging, and heat treating. This article begins with a discussion on the types of power supplies, namely, solid-state power supplies and oscillator tubes. It provides information on system elements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... exceptions. Forgings that are not to be machined do not require, or receive, a machining stock allowance. No-draft forgings do not require a draft allowance. Short or blocky forgings generally do not require straightness or flatness tolerances. Typical tolerances that have been applied to forgings other...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-blade shearing is used for squaring and cutting flat stock to required shape and size. Mostly it is used for square and rectangular shapes, although triangles and other straight-sided shapes are also sheared with straight blades. Rotary shearing (not to be confused with slitting) is used for producing...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article discusses the classification, characteristics and temper designations of wrought aluminum alloys. Wrought aluminum products are available as flat-rolled products such as sheets, plates, and foils; rods, bars, and wires; tubular products such as tubes and pipes; extruded...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... flat, while the lower die utilizes another type of tool. Two or more hammers or presses and die setups are often needed to complete a shape (or operations are done at different times in the same hammer or press by changing the tooling). For example, large rings are made by upsetting the stock between...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., drawing, production of flat rectangular wire, annealing, and coating, are discussed. The article also provides information on electrical insulation and jacketing techniques, including polymeric insulation, enamel insulation, and paper-and-oil insulation. continuous casting copper cable copper wire...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... as well as the three main types of wrought products: flat-rolled products, wire-drawn products, and extruded and forged products. The article also provides a section on the corrosion resistance of zinc and zinc coatings in various atmospheres. corrosion resistance galvanizing iron and steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... its simplest form, hot upset forging is accomplished by confining one end of a bar and applying pressure to the end of the stock that is unconfined. This axial pressure, applied by the heading tool, causes the material to spread (upset) in a manner to achieve the desired shape. This simple upsetting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., microgrinding Coated abrasives Belt grinding, sanding Belt grinding (surface, form or profile, flat stock finishing, polishing) Belt polishing Impregnated abrasives … Polishing, deburring, buffing … Powder, slurries, compounds, and jets Abrasive jet machining Polishing, buffing, liquid buffing...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... used successfully. A BLANK is a shape cut from flat or performed stock. Ordinarily, a blank serves as a starting workpiece for a formed part; less often, it is the end product. This article will discuss the production of blanks from low-carbon steel (such as 1008 and 1010) sheet and strip in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... cutaway portion just large enough to feed in the forging stock. Fully cylindrical dies are sometimes more efficient than semicylindrical or flat-back dies because of the larger periphery available for the forging action. However, one disadvantage of fully cylindrical dies is that the opening is too small...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... heavier stock removal—use a larger angle of draw and a slower regulating wheel speed and grind closer to center. To produce roundness—grind as high above center as possible. To grind long bars—grind below center on a flat blade. For long bores—use softer-grade wheels and wider wheels, if...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... in other directions may yet be superior to those in products not wrought—that is, in cast ingots or in forging stock taken from ingot only lightly worked. The square rolled section shown schematically in Fig. 1(a) is anisotropic with respect to average mechanical properties of test bars such as...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... moved horizontally by compressed air. Heated stock is positioned automatically at each die impression by a present pattern of accurately timed movements of a stock-handling device. A 90° rotation of stock can be programmed between blows. High-energy-rate forging (HERF) machines are high speed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... possibility of rehardened and decarburized areas on hardened or heat-treated parts. When both sides of a flat piece are lapped in the same operation, extreme accuracy in flatness and parallelism can be accomplished; and by removing the same amount of stock from both sides of the part simultaneously, any...