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flat lapping

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Image
Published: 01 January 1989
Fig. 16 Parts requiring different amounts of restraint or support in flat lapping. Symmetrical components similar to (a) and (b) do not require workholders for flat lapping. Asymmetrical components similar to (c) and (d) require workholders to keep them separated from each other. Parts similar More
Image
Published: 01 January 1989
Fig. 21 Typical sweep paths of workpiece over lap face in flat lapping. See text for discussion. More
Image
Published: 01 November 1995
Fig. 18 Schematic showing key components of a single-side flat lapping process More
Image
Published: 01 January 1989
Fig. 12 Typical horizontal single-face flat lap lapping machine with three conditioning rings. Ring position flattening is achieved by using gravity pressure. Courtesy of P.R. Hoffman Machine Products More
Book Chapter

By Pel Lynah
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
..., flat surfaces, end surfaces, spherical surfaces, balls, spring like parts, and gears. It also reviews the problems in flat and end lapping. The article concludes information on the use of lapping in accelerated wearing-in process for matching and aligning components of bearing assemblies...
Image
Published: 31 October 2011
Fig. 2 (a) Lap seam weld, (b) mash seam weld with flat electrodes, and (c) mash seam weld with radiused (contoured) electrodes. Flat electrodes in mash seam welding should not be used when sheet thickness is less than 1mm (0.040 in.). Radiused electrodes can be used for sheet thicker than 1mm More
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... grinding and provides information on tooling, wheel selection, work material, and operational factors. It also discusses precision slicing and slotting, lapping, honing, and polishing as well as abrasive waterjet, electrical discharge, laser, and ultrasonic machining. abrasive machining ceramics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... components with controlled surface properties. Emphasis is placed on kinematically simple configurations of finishing processes, such as surface grinding, flat surface polishing, and lapping. flat surface polishing grinding lapping surface finishing surface properties thermal damage thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... surface is used to simultaneously finish a large number of flat parts ( Fig. 13 ). The predecessor to the flat honing process was hyper lap , in which the lapping plate was simply replaced by an abrasive product such as a grinding wheel. Modern flat honing machines “float” the abrasive product...
Image
Published: 01 January 1989
, maintaining a flat surface. Standard machines handle parts from 3.2 to 810 mm ( 1 8 to 32 in.) in cross section. Steel, tool steel, bronze, cast iron, stainless steel, aluminum, magnesium, brass, quartz, ceramics, plastics, and glass can be lapped on the same lap plate. More
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 11 Effects of various grinding and polishing stages on the specimen surface. (a) The rolling action of diamond particles on a hard lap surface during planar grinding produces a flat specimen with a minimal amount of damage to the coating. (b) During fine grinding, rotating the specimen More
Image
Published: 01 November 1995
Fig. 19 Schematic showing errors in parallelism and flatness being corrected with double-side lapping process More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... ), sometimes called narrow-lap welding. Mash seam welds are produced by overlapping two sheets, with work metal compressed at the joint. Fig. 2 (a) Lap seam weld, (b) mash seam weld with flat electrodes, and (c) mash seam weld with radiused (contoured) electrodes. Flat electrodes in mash seam welding...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... process, similar to honing except that a large flat honing surface is used to simultaneously finish a large number of flat parts. The predecessor to the flat honing process was hyper lap, in which the lapping plate was simply replaced by an abrasive product such as a grinding wheel. Modern flat honing...
Image
Published: 01 January 1993
Fig. 4 Manual GTAW of electronic deck assembly Conditions for manual GTAW Joint types Lap and corner Weld types Fillet and single-V-groove Welding positions Horizontal and flat Preweld cleaning Wire brushing Preheat None Fixtures Tool plate and toggle clamps More
Image
Published: 01 January 1997
Fig. 12 Cap-to-pipe weldment. Low-carbon steel welded to medium-carbon steel; low-carbon steel filler metal (EL12). Source: Ref 15 Joint type Joggled lap Weld type, original design Square-groove, with backing ring Weld type, improved design Modified single-V-groove More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... “Procedure Development and Practice Considerations for Resistance Welding” in this Volume. Types of Seam Welds Several types of resistance seam welds can be made: Lap seam welds joining overlapping flat sheets ( Fig. 1a ) Flange-joint lap seam welds with at least one flange overlapping...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... in RFSSW tools, but no flats or flutes have been reported in the literature. Swept Spot Welding Swept spot friction stir welding (SSFSW) is used to join thin sheets in a lap configuration. In SSFSW, a fixed-probe FSW tool is displaced into the upper sheet. The tool is then transformed through...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003747
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... electron microscopy must be free of residual abrasion strains. Small strains introduce crystal defects detectable by transmission electron microscopy. Flatness of Abraded Surfaces Finishing abrasion on a fixed-abrasive lap often yields more satisfactory results than those obtained by finishing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002494
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... and surface features Lapping/buffing Surfaces must be accessible to tools (preferably flat or simple, curved contours Avoid very thin cross sections/wall thickness that cannot withstand the local pressure and heat buildup Avoid sharp corners and edges Avoid intricate designs and surface features...