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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... plates, cylinders, and flanges. The article discusses various control methods, including the use of lead screens; protection against backscatter and scatter from external objects; and the use of masks, diaphragms, collimators, and filtration. The radiographic appearance of specific types of flaws is also...
Book Chapter

By Jian Cao
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005166
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... Abstract Flanging is a process used to form a projecting rim or edge on a part. This article explores how to determine aluminum flanging limits in terms of fracture, wrinkling, and springback, and their influencing material and process parameters with examples. flanging fracture...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Horizontal centrifugal casting is used to cast parts having an axis of revolution. This article discusses the operations of various horizontal casting machines, such as flanged shaft machine, horizontal roller-type machine, and double-face plate machine. It describes the types of molds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006098
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Application area Alloy Automotive Exhaust system flanges and sensor bosses 409L, 409LNi, 434L, 434LNb Antilock brake system sensor rings 410L, 434L Rearview mirror mounts 430L, 434L, 316L Brake components 434L Seat belt locks 304L Windshield wiper pinions 410L Windshield...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... presence of air in the gap may lead to the formation of porosity and nonfusion ( Ref 8 ). Micropores sometimes form in the fusion zone, and the number of pores and their size increase with increasing gap size. Flange joints, as with butt joints, require straight, square edges, good fit-up, clamping...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... The article illustrates the fracture loci in cylindrical, tapered, and flanged upset-test specimens of aluminum alloy and type 1045 cold-finished steel. aluminum alloys cold-finished steel crack detection cylindrical compression testing flanged upset-test specimens specimen geometry...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... Abstract Bending is a common metalworking operation to create localized deformation in sheets (or blanks), plates, sections, tubes, and wires. This article emphasizes on the bending of sheet metal along with some coverage on flanging. It informs that variations in the bending stresses cause...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... their general geometric features. These operations include hole making, flanging, bead and rib forming, and stretching and drawing for shallow or deep recesses. The article illustrates the general approach to design for sheet forming and the considerations that must be made for material savings and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... speed, lubrication, and type of restraint of metal flow used. The article describes the process of redrawing and ironing of metals. Drawing of workpieces with flanges and drawing of hemispheres are also illustrated. The article also provides information on the reducing of drawn shells, methods for...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... boxlike parts, panels, flanged parts, architectural columns, fully closed parts, and semicircular parts. It examines the effect of work metal variables on results in press-brake operations. The article also reviews stock tolerances, design, and condition of machines and tools, which help in obtaining good...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005902
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... consists of a tiltable furnace vessel with refractory lining onto which an inductor or several inductors are flange mounted. This article includes a discussion on the design for holding and dosed-pouring of the iron melts, design for melting the materials, and refractory lining of furnace vessel. It...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... longitudinal fillet weld that was used to attach a 0.9-m (3-ft) long lateral connection plate to the edge of a flange. Fig. 2 Crack at the end of the lateral connection plate. The Yellow Mill Pond Bridge was constructed in 1956–1957 and was opened to traffic in January 1958. In October-November...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... transmitted compression cannot reload the sample. Figure 1(a) shows the momentum trapping scheme for a tension pulse. The free end of the bar terminates with a transfer flange F in contact with a momentum-trap tube MT, which has the same impedance as the bar (e.g., the tube has the same cross-sectional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... ( Ref 1 ). Whether or not a press has a die cushion has some effect on die design and construction costs. Special die designs are needed to take advantage of hydraulic cushion technology. Speed of forming has little effect on the formability of steels used for simple bending or flanging or for...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... flanged end and tapering the wall uniformly to its original thickness at the opposite end. This change lowered the rejection rate from 16% to 6%. Fig. 2 As originally designed, with a constant wall thickness, this sand cast steel elbow fitting was producible only at a 16% rejection rate, because of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Fig. 1 A four-bolt automotive exhaust flange made of press and sinter PM stainless steel (409LNi) (Courtesy: Hazentec, LLC) Abstract Stainless steels are highly alloyed materials in comparison to most other popular powder metallurgy (PM) materials, such as low-alloy steels, copper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... hydrobuckling. bulging punches deep drawing Demarest process flexible-die forming fluid cell forming fluid forming gasket Guerin process hydrobuckling hydroform process marform process presses pressure control rubber diaphragm rubber pad forming rubber-die flanging SAAB process trapped...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002494
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... contact painted surfaces should have a 0.8 mm ( 1 32 in.) min radius. Flange. Large flange with sharp inside angles should be avoided to minimize plating costs. Use generous radius on inside angles and taper abutment. Slots. Narrow, closely spaced slots and holes cannot be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... loads, radial stresses in curved laminates subject to tangential loads and bending moments, and curling of axially loaded curved flanges. Analytical models for calculating out-of-plane stresses due to direct and indirect loads have been developed for most cases of practical interest to structural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fracture, which originated adjacent to a flange (arrow at S), followed a very complex path. See also Fig. 178 , 179 , 180 , 181 , 182 , 183 , 184 , 185 , and 186 . ∼0.17× Fig. 178 Polished and etched section through the shell in Fig. 177 , showing an as-rolled microstructure consisting...