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flame hardening

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Flame hardening is a heat treating process in which a thin surface shell of a steel part is heated rapidly to a temperature above the critical temperatures of the steel. The versatility of flame-hardening equipment and the wide range of heating conditions obtainable with gas burners...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005951
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... Abstract Case hardening involves various methods and each method has unique characteristics and different considerations in the selection of steels This article reviews the various grades of carburizing steels, carbonitriding steels, nitriding steels, and steels for induction, or flame...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... frequency, power, duration of heating, and coil design for induction hardening. The article also discusses the scope, application, methods, and operation of flame hardening. electron-beam heat treating flame hardening induction hardening induction tempering laser surface hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005942
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
..., flame hardening, induction hardening, and nitriding. annealing austempering austenitizing flame hardening gray iron hardenability heat treatment induction hardening martempering modulus of elasticity nitriding normalizing quenching stress relieving transformation hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... implantation and laser surface processing. Surface hardening techniques, namely, nitriding, carburizing, boriding, and flame hardening, performed to improve the resistance of stainless steel alloys are also reviewed. acid cleaning acid descaling alkaline cleaning boriding buffing carburizing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Diffusion methods: Carburizing Nitriding Carbonitriding Nitrocarburizing Boriding Titanium-carbon diffusion Toyota diffusion process Selective-hardening methods: Flame hardening Induction hardening Laser hardening Electron beam hardening Ion implantation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... in the non-heat-treated condition; however, in most cases they were flame or induction hardened ( Ref 25 , 26 ). With the flame-hardening process, the quality of surface hardening was often questionable, requiring a great deal of operator expertise for the setup and process control. Longer heating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... processes (such as flame hardening and induction hardening), the choice of the right quenching medium is of crucial importance for the hardening process results. For EBH, the quenching rates tied to self-quenching (10 3 to 10 4 K/s −1 ) lie distinctly above the values achievable even by quenching in water...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... material, known as the core. Case hardening processes include carburizing, nitriding, carbonitriding, cyaniding, and induction and flame hardening. In every instance, case hardening affects chemical composition or mechanical properties, or both. An accurate and repeatable method of measuring case depth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Laser surface hardening is a noncontact process that provides a chemically inert and clean environment as well as flexible integration with operating systems. This article provides a brief discussion on the various conventional surface-modification techniques to enhance the surface and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... requirements. Total cost increases with heat treatment roughly as follows: Low-carbon steels, such as 1020, not heat treated Simple high-carbon steels, such as 1095, not heat treated Directly hardened carbon or low-alloy steels, either through-hardened or surface-hardened by induction or flame...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... severe for carbon grades than for alloy grades of equivalent carbon content. The relatively low hardenability of carbon steels is a primary reason for choosing them in preference to alloy steels for parts that are to be locally heat treated by flame or induction hardening. Fabrication processes are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... Abstract Gray irons are a group of cast irons that form flake graphite during solidification, in contrast to the spheroidal graphite morphology of ductile irons. This article describes surface hardening of gray irons by flame and induction heating. It provides information on the classification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... criteria: to produce solidified white iron throughout the section thickness; and to produce the desired graphite distribution (nodule count) upon annealing. It describes the induction heating and quenching or flame heating and quenching for surface hardening of fully pearlitic malleable iron. Laser and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... containing phosphorus react with hydroxyl groups at fire-exposure temperatures. They are particularly effective in epoxy resins that have high concentrations of hydroxyl groups. The amount of phosphorus needed to achieve flame-retardant levels depends on the type of hardener used. Reactive co-monomer epoxies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
..., mechanical, chemical, and electrochemical and their effectiveness and applicability. The mechanical cleaning methods include grinding, brushing, steam or flame jet cleaning, abrasive blasting, and tumbling. Solvent cleaning, emulsion cleaning, alkaline cleaning, acid cleaning, pickling, and descaling are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... electrical resistance welding and thermite welding. It reviews thermal spraying processes, such as flame spraying, arc spraying, and plasma spraying, of a cast iron. arc spraying braze welding cast iron ductile iron electrical resistance welding flame spraying flux cored arc welding fusion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001372
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Abstract Oxyfuel gas welding (OFW) is a manual process in which the metal surfaces to be joined are melted progressively by heat from a gas flame, with or without a filler metal. This article discusses the capabilities, advantages, and limitations of OFW. It describes the role of gases, such as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Hardenability refers to the ability of steel to obtain satisfactory hardening to some desired depth when cooled under prescribed conditions. It is governed almost entirely by the chemical composition (carbon and alloy content) at the austenitizing temperature and the austenite grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005870
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... sections. After tempering the steel does not show a tendency to brittleness and therefore no special heat treatment procedures are required. This steel is also suitable for surface hardening (flame surface hardening, induction surface hardening) and displays a very good resistance to wear. However, great...