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flame hardening

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
...Fuel gases used for flame hardening Table 1 Fuel gases used for flame hardening Gas Heating value Flame temperature Usual ratio of oxygen to fuel gas Heating value of oxy-fuel gas mixture Normal velocity of burning Combustion intensity (a) Usual ratio of air to fuel gas...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Fuel gases used for flame hardening Table 4 Fuel gases used for flame hardening Gas Heating value Flame temperature Usual ratio of oxygen to fuel gas Heating value of oxyfuel gas mixture Normal velocity of burning Combustion intensity (a) Usual ratio of air to fuel gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005942
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... Typical hardness gradient produced in gray iron by flame hardening Fig. 13 Effect of tempering temperature on gray iron. (a) to (c) Changes in mechanical properties of hardened low-silicon unalloyed gray iron. (d) Hardness of gray iron specimens quenched in oil from 870 °C (1600 °F) and tempered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005951
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... strength; fair resistance to seizure; fair dimensional control possible; fair freedom from quench cracks; low-cost steels usually satisfactory; medium capital investment required Flame hardening Hard, highly wear-resistant surface (deep case depths); good capacity for contact load; good bending fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... implantation and laser surface processing. Surface hardening techniques, namely, nitriding, carburizing, boriding, and flame hardening, performed to improve the resistance of stainless steel alloys are also reviewed. acid cleaning acid descaling alkaline cleaning boriding buffing carburizing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... Typical hardness gradient produced in gray iron by flame hardening Fig. 20 Distortion in gray iron cylinder liners after martempering and after conventional oil quenching. Before being measured, liners were furnace tempered for 2 h at 200 °C (400 °F). Fig. 18 Isothermal transformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... on the metallurgical criteria: to produce solidified white iron throughout the section thickness; and to produce the desired graphite distribution (nodule count) upon annealing. It describes the induction heating and quenching or flame heating and quenching for surface hardening of fully pearlitic malleable iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
..., and in a die for a 305 mm (12 in.) part, it may amount to nearly one-half the total die cost, even when the tool consists of a tool steel insert in a flame-hardened alloy cast iron die. Die Performance Materials for Specific Tools Combating Specific Service Problems The performance of a drawing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... than for alloy grades of equivalent carbon content. The relatively low hardenability of carbon steels is a primary reason for choosing them in preference to alloy steels for parts that are to be locally heat treated by flame or induction hardening. Fabrication processes are performed on hardenable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... + 1 3 % Si. Fig. 18 Typical hardness gradient produced in gray iron by flame hardening Fig. 3 Action of media and parts within a rotating barrel Fig. 19 Relationship between depth of induction hardening to 50 HRC and graphite nodule count in normalized and tempered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... Cyaniding Ion Nitriding of Cast Iron Flame Hardening Induction Hardening Laser Heating Cast irons are occasionally nitrided for various applications with the aim of enhancing surface hardness and corrosion resistance of the products. Conventional gas nitriding, employing anhydrous ammonia...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... mixing Substrate treatment Diffusion methods: Carburizing Nitriding Carbonitriding Nitrocarburizing Boriding Titanium-carbon diffusion Toyota diffusion process Selective-hardening methods: Flame hardening Induction hardening Laser hardening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... and pearlitic malleable irons. More details on general heat treatment of cast irons and stress relief are in the article “Introduction to Cast Iron Heat Treatment” in this Volume. Like gray and ductile iron, malleable iron and CG iron can be surface hardened by either induction heating and quenching or flame...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Austenitizing Quenching Tempering Flame Hardening Induction Hardening Temperature of stress relieving is usually well below the range for the transformation of pearlite to austenite. For a maximum relief of stress with a minimum of decomposition of carbide in unalloyed irons, a temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... as a function of carbon content for effective case depth of induction- or flame-hardened steel Table 1 Recommended hardness limits as a function of carbon content for effective case depth of induction- or flame-hardened steel Carbon content, % Hardness Limit, HRC 0.28–0.32 35 0.33–0.42 40...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... , Heat Treating , Vol 4 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1991 , p 260 – 267 75. Ruglic T. , Flame Hardening , Heat Treating , Vol 4 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1991 , p 268 – 285 76. Budinski K.G. , Surface Engineering for Wear Resistance , Prentice-Hall...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... is a polished and etched cross section of a partially flame-hardened crane gear of AISI 1045 steel in which fatigue cracks formed at the roots of many teeth after one year of service. The cracks have been sharply delineated by etching. Note that hardening did not extend even to the root fillet of any tooth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... indicated, the punch and die should be gas nitrided 12 h at 540–565 °C (1000–1050 °F). (g) Soft. (h) Working edges are flame hardened in this application. (i) May be soft or flame hardened. (j) For punching 10,000–1,00,000 pieces, the punch would be W1, left soft so that it can be peened...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005945
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... Tempering Metallurgical Aspects Surface-Hardening Methods Surface-Hardening Heating Methods Diffusion Hardening Spot Hardening Spin Hardening Progressive Hardening Four methods of heating for surface or localized quench hardening are employed: flame, induction, laser, and immersion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006347
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... production parts hardened by induction heating are rocker arms and clutch hubs. An example of a flame-hardened pearlitic malleable iron part is a pinion spacer used to support the cup of a roller bearing. To preclude service failures, the ends of the pinion spacer are flame hardened to a depth...