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flame emission

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Image
Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 12 Droplet sequence during flame emission spectroscopy. M, the cation; X, the anion More
Image
Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 2 Comparison of (a) flame atomic emission spectrometry, (b) flame atomic absorption spectrometry, and (c) flame atomic fluorescence spectrometry. More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... are often designed to minimize molecular emission. Each of the four types of emission sources; arcs, high-voltage sparks, glow discharges, and flames; has a set of physical characteristics with accompanying analytical assets and liabilities. The article also discusses the applications of each type...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... spectrometry (AFS) and atomic emission spectrometry (AES). Several features are common to all three techniques. The first is a sample-introduction/atomization system consisting of a sample sprayer (referred to as the nebulizer) and the flame. The flame desolvates, vaporizes, then atomizes (dissociates to free...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... emission, atomic absorption, or atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Atomic absorption in flames is carried out using a principle that entails determination of the absorption at the line center using a narrow-line source emitting a given resonance line of the element, whose emission-line profile is less...
Image
Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 3 General structure of the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer plasma torch during analysis. The electron flow (eddy current) is maintained by the electric and magnetic fields initiated by the induction coils. The plasma is retained within two concentric quartz tubes More
Image
Published: 15 December 2019
Fig. 4 Schematic representation of the plasma flame structure showing the various analytical areas. The atomization process mainly occurs in the preheating zone. The initial radiation zone covers predominantly the excitation and ionization, and the normal analytical zone comprises the emission More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... emission sources for emission spectroscopy as it evolved into an analytical science in the last half of the 19th century, with some of the most important work done by Kirchhoff and Bunsen ( Ref 1 ). Flame emission sources differ significantly from the other sources described in this article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... with the line self-reversal background-correction scheme. The arrows indicate approximate sampling times for the low- and high-current signals. (b) Representation of the corresponding lamp emission signals As this broadened emission line passes through the atomizer (flame or furnace), the central portion...
Book Chapter

By Tim Pepper
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... 7 ASTM E 84  Flame spread 120 23 25  Smoke emission 608 270 268 NBS chamber: flaming mode  Maximum density 203 433 264  90 s density 2.5 18 11  240 s density 162 245 128 NBS chamber: nonflaming mode  Maximum density 481 400 350  90 s density 1 1 5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... concentrations in the sample, are apt to be incompletely dissociated or even gasified in conventional atomizers. This scatter signal is sometimes compounded with molecular fluorescence emission signals from naturally present gaseous flame species, a condition especially troublesome when continuum excitation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the use of a flame as an excitation source, combined with a prism as a dispersive system, to separate spectral lines, giving rise to the flame spectroscopy technique ( Ref 2 ). However, it was only in the 1960s that the first inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), operating...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001729
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... of flame emission techniques. Principles of Operation The ICP is an excitation source for atomic emission spectroscopy. It is an argon plasma operated at atmospheric pressure and sustained by inductive coupling to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field. Argon gas flows axially through a quartz...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0005692
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
..., that is, separated charges that are bound to their centers of Microwave I~m) direct injection burner. A burner used in equilibrium by an elastic force; equal 3 x 106 to 1 x 10l° (0.3 mm to flame emission and atomic absorption numbers of positive and negative charges spectroscopy in which the fuel and oxidiz- must...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract The overall chemical composition of metals and alloys is most commonly determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES), and combustion and inert gas fusion analysis. This article provides information on the capabilities, uses, detection threshold...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... combustion air is preheated. A number of techniques can be used to reduce NO x emissions. Flue gas recirculation, obtained within the kiln or by external duct work with the combustion air or fuel, lowers the flame temperature that inhibits NO x formation. Cold air burners that use a flat flame also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., such as cost, temperature range, useful life, accuracy, size, and response speed. The selection of noncontact sensors involves similar considerations plus those related to radiation factors such as target size, surface emissivity, focal length, and sighting path interference. Thermocouples and resistance...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... (Mapp) Natural gas Chemical formula C 2 H 2 C 3 H 8 C 3 H 6 C 3 H 4 (Methylacetylene, propadiene) CH 4 (Methane) Neutral flame temperature  °C 3,100 2,520 2,370 2,870 2,540  °F 5,600 4,580 5,200 5,200 4,600 Primary flame heat emission  MJ/m 3 19 10...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005717
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
...) and flame devices operating at up to 1 GJ (1 million Btu). At these energy levels, the engineering control complexity and cost of dust collection, noise control, and the degree of automation required to remove the operator from the process become more and more significant. Hazards also exist...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001732
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
.... The article also discusses the uses of some special techniques used in molecular fluorescence spectroscopy. emission spectroscopy molecular fluorescence spectroscopy qualitative analysis quantitative analysis uranium Overview Introduction Molecular fluorescence spectroscopy has...