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flaking

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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 37 Flaking of oxide scale during water quenching of S45C carbon steel. Water temperature is 30 °C (85 °F). Test specimen is a solid cylinder 10 mm (0.4 in.) in diameter by 30 mm (1.2 in.) in length. (a) Light oxide coating after heating for 3 min at 860 °C (1580 °F) in air in argon gas. (b More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 18 Fine flaking damage on the surface of a shaft that served as a roller-bearing inner raceway. The flaking originated along the ridges of the surface finish of the shaft. More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 2 Schematic of the powdering and flaking of galvannealed coatings on sheet steels. OD, outside diameter; ID, inside diameter More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 50 (a) Fine flaking damage on the surface of a shaft that served as a roller-bearing inner raceway. The flaking originated along the ridges of the surface finish of the shaft. (b) Flaking (also known as micropitting) due to poor lubrication within a cylindrical roller bearing More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 1 Graphite flake size as specified by ASTM A247. (a) Longest flakes 101.6 mm (4 in.) or more in length. (b) Longest flakes 50.8 to 101.6 mm (2 to 4 in.) in length. (c) Longest flakes 25.4 to 50.8 mm (1 to 2 in.) in length. (d) Longest flakes 12.7 to 25.4 ( 1 2 to 1 in.) in length More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 24 Retention of graphite in cast iron. (a) Coarse graphite flakes in a gray iron specimen that was polished with a long-nap cloth. Note enlarged cavities where the graphite phase has been torn out. (b) Well-preserved graphite flakes in a gray iron specimen that was polished with a napless More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 5 Examples of two extremes in graphite shapes in cast irons. (Left) Flake graphite in gray iron. 100×. (Right) Spheroidal graphite in ductile iron (viewed in polarized light). 500× More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 6 Typical flake (lamellar) graphite shapes specified in ISO 945-1 (equivalent to ASTM A247). (a), uniform distribution, random orientation; (b), rosette groupings; (c), primary graphite, also called kish graphite (superimposed flake sizes, random orientation); (d), undercooled graphite More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 17 Characteristic cooling curves associated with different flake graphite shapes. T E , equilibrium eutectic temperature More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 18 Effect of maximum graphite flake length on the tensile strength of gray iron. Source: Ref 25 More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 28 Effect of carbon equivalent on the tensile strength of flake, compacted, and spheroidal graphite irons cast in 30 mm (1.2 in.) diameter bars. Source: Ref 36 More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 8 Carbon and silicon range of ferrous alloys. FG, flake graphite; SG, spheroidal graphite. Adapted from Ref 9 More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 21 Effect of graphite flake length on tensile strength for two sets of gray irons. Source: Ref 32 More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 8 The maximum dimension of graphite flakes ( L max ) as a function of the number of eutectic cells (N A ) in inoculated GCI (carbon equivalent [CE] = 4.3) More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 7 Defects in TWDI castings. (a) Skin with flake graphite. (b) Skin with graphite segregation. Source: Ref 22 . (c) Slag inclusions. Source: Ref 22 . (d) Clusters of graphite nodules. Source: Ref 22 . (e) Shrinkage porosity. Source: Ref 22 . (f) Eutectic chills. Source: Ref 22 . (g More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 1 (a) Type A flake-type graphite in gray iron. (b) Type B rosette-type graphite in gray iron. (c) Type E interdendritic flake graphite in gray iron. (d) Compacted graphite. None of the specimens were etched. More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 3 Variations in graphite morphology. (a) Flake graphite in gray cast iron. (b) Compacted graphite iron. (c) Graphite nodules in ductile iron. As-polished More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 4 Histogram of sphericity shape factors for two flake gray iron specimens, a compacted iron, and a ductile iron with nodular graphite More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 4 The flake skin is healed by shot blasting, imparting a compressive residual in the near-surface area. (a) As-cast flake skin. (b) Healed flake skin after shot blasting. Source: Ref 18 More
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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 8 An addition of 0.001% active magnesium is sufficient to convert a flake-patch microstructure into a high-quality CGI microstructure. (a) Flake patches (320 MPa, or 46.4 ksi). (b) <5% nodularity (450 MPa, or 65.3 ksi). Source: Ref 25 More