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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., through feed, planetary, and internal. This article focuses on the capabilities, limitations, and machines used for these methods. It describes the three characteristics, such as rollability, flaking, and seaming, used in evaluating and selecting metals for thread rolling. The article explores the factors...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... pearlitic microstructure; the machine housing has a ferrite plus pearlite matrix with graphite flakes; and the jaw crusher microstructure contains martensite and cementite. cast irons material selection mechanical properties microstructure steels THE PROPERTIES of irons and steels are linked...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Cast iron exhibits a considerable amount of eutectic in the solid state. This article discusses the structure of liquid iron-carbon alloys to understand the mechanism of the solidification of cast iron. It illustrates nucleation of the austenite-flake graphite eutectic, austenite...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... on fracture surface of a casting Fig. 5 Furnace refractory on the machined surface of a casting A close-up view of a fracture surface of an aluminum sting containing presolidified aluminum (often referred to as “cold flake”) from a shot sleeve in a die-casting machine is shown in Fig...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003106
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... graphite phase. Gray iron has flake-shaped graphite, ductile iron has nodular or spherically shaped graphite, compacted graphite iron (also called vermicular graphite iron) is intermediate between these two, and malleable iron has irregularly shaped globular or “popcorn-shaped” graphite that is formed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... through the casting in a region containing type C, size 3 graphite flakes. Cause of failure was traced to a crack that initiated at one of these flakes. Inset: broken grinder in as-received condition. 1.5× (C.-A. Baer, California Polytechnic State University) Effect of graphite morphology on...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... bars GRAY IRON refers to a broad class of ferrous casting alloys normally characterized by a microstructure of flake graphite in a ferrous matrix. Gray irons are in essence iron-carbon-silicon alloys that usually contain 2.5 to 4% C, 1 to 3% Si, and additions of manganese, depending on the desired...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Table 1 Comparison of properties of cerium-treated CG iron with flake graphite (FG) iron of the same chemical composition, high-strength pearlitic FG iron, and ferritic spheroidal graphite (SG) iron in the as-cast condition Property High-strength pearlitic FG iron (100% pearlite, 100...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...) fall between those of gray flake graphite irons (FG) and ductile irons (SG). This position gives CG a desirable combination of properties for certain applications of high interest. Compact graphite iron has higher strength, stiffness, and fatigue strength than FG with better thermal conductivity and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... except white iron contain flake graphite. Nital etch; 100×. (a) 100% ferrite; 120 HB. (b) 50% pearlite, 50% ferrite; 150 HB. (c) Coarse pearlite; 195 HB. (d) Fine pearlite; 215 HB. (e) Pearlite + steadite; 200 HB. (f) Pearlite + carbide; 240 HB. (g) Acicular; 263 HB. (h) White iron. Pearlite + carbide...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... shows the transition from a completely pearlitic zone to a zone where cementite surrounds the pearlite colonies. Contributed to ASM Online Micrograph Center by L.E. Samuels Gray iron is also called flake or lamellar graphite cast iron due to the shape of the graphite present in these alloys...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...) Once sorted, the bottles are shredded and granulated to a flake size of 3.2 to 9.5 mm (0.13 to 0.38 in.), air classified to remove loosened paper/plastic labels and dirt, and washed with hot nonfoaming detergent solution in one or more stages. The crude polymer flake is rinsed again with fresh water to...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... eutectic temperature. In gray cast iron, the carbon that exceeds the solubility in austenite precipitates as flake graphite. Gray irons usually contain 2.5 to 4% C, 1 to 3% Si, and additions of manganese, depending on the desired microstructure (as low as 0.1% Mn in ferritic gray irons and as high as 1.2...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... pass through a discontinuity (void, crack) in a part. Gross shrink porosity and/or presence of inclusions can contribute to “leaks” in components that need to be pressuretight. As shown in Fig. 7 , the presence of aluminum cold flakes (presolidified aluminum from a shot sleeve) in a casting created a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... other metal coating operations, the electrolytic process becomes somewhat more involved. Fig. 1 Schematic cross section of the surface of a cast iron component as it is modified by cleaning in a molten salt bath. (a) As-cast. Note surface scale, burned-in core/mold sand particles, and flake...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005212
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... unmodified alloys must be flakes or sheets. Now, with the availability of electron microscopy, it is confirmed that silicon in unmodified aluminum-silicon eutectics has a flakelike microstructure. At relatively fast cooling rates, such as those encountered in chill casting, the aluminum-silicon eutectic is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... reinforcements: To obtain high-strength composites, as in sprayable coatings (chopped fibers) and laminates Flake reinforcements: For physical reinforcement to reduce shrinkage and coefficient of thermal expansion in the plane of the lining. Glass flakes are used for a very laminar structure that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... introduces a weakness in the paint film, which may crack or flake off. Probable causes: Poor application. High-viscosity paint system. Failure to brush paint into corners and over welds Prevention: Brush-apply a stripe coat into corners and welds and fill all cracks or weld them prior to...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... at the thickest part of the component to promote directional solidification. Gate velocity is under 500 mm/s (20 in./s). The slow gate velocity helps reduce turbulence and entrapment of gas in the metal. Cold flakes form on the inner wall of the shot sleeve when molten metal, in contact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... polymer backbone that would offer protection to the weaker bonds in the polymer. The FEVE resin family consists of several different products that can be used in a wide variety of coating systems. There are solvent-based solution resins, 100%-solid flake resins, water-based emulsions, and a water-based...