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first law of thermodynamics

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... The First Law of Thermodynamics, as stated by Julius von Mayer, James Joule, and Hermann von Helmholtz in the 1840s, states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed. Therefore, it is called the Law of Conservation of Energy. This law means that the total energy of an isolated system remains...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article is a comprehensive collection of the thermodynamic equations and property relations of the first and second laws of thermodynamics that are applicable to closed-system consisting of several homogeneous and heterogeneous phases. thermodynamics thermodynamic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003588
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... given in the first part of this article. At a given temperature, the oxide whose oxygen dissociation pressure is the lowest will form on iron, for example, FeO above 570 °C (1060 °F). To determine whether Fe 3 O 4 or Fe 2 O 3 forms on FeO, the following reaction and corresponding thermodynamic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...: (Eq 29) log f i = e i i [ % i ] + Σ e i j [ % j ] As pointed out previously, first-order interactions may not be sufficient for describing Fe-C-Si alloys with compositions relating to cast irons. Further examples of strong interactions are presented...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... systems ( Ref 4 ) provides selected thermochemical values in tabulated and graphical form. This compilation also includes phase diagrams calculated from the same thermodynamic functions as the tabulated thermochemical values. It is the first compilation that makes use of the correlations between...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... . Transport across the boundary layer is assumed to occur only by diffusion. Applying Fick's first law of diffusion, the flux of species i across the boundary layer is: (Eq 30) J = D δ ( C i * − C i B ) = k m ( C i * − C i B ) where D is the diffusion...
Book Chapter

By Sammy Tin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... followed by glide characterized by the power-law creep equations. Since the applied stresses are at a level where they can readily overcome obstacles without having to first climb over them, the deformation process is no longer limited by the kinetics of dislocation climb. The high applied stresses reduce...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... addressed in sections on thermodynamics in this article. The first is the calculation of solubility lines, relevant to the construction of phase diagrams, and the second is the calculation of the activity of various components, which allows for the determination of probability of formation and relative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003577
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract This article provides a summary of the concepts discussed in the articles under the Section “Fundamentals of Corrosion” in ASM Handbook, Volume 13A: Corrosion: Fundamentals, Testing, and Protection. In this section, the thermodynamic aspects of corrosion are descried first followed by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003743
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... require the least energy move first, followed by those produced from other slip systems. Figure 2 shows the initiation of cells as the dislocations from various slip systems begin to tangle and pile up. These small areas, or cells, exhibit very few or no individual dislocations and therefore are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... simulations, and the sequential simulations were linked to one another through the temperature profiles developed in previous steps. The first simulation model was the deposition and cooling of the first layer of filament deposited onto the build platform, which was at a constant temperature of 80 °C (175...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... charge transfer, the surface concentration will fall to 0, and the corrosion process will be totally controlled by flux of oxidant to the corroding surface. In the case of one-dimensional transport, this flux ( J ) can be calculated from the solution of Fick's first law: (Eq 43) J = − D...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... Source: Ref 2 The use of interaction coefficients, first suggested by Wagner ( Ref 4 ), provides a convenient means of organizing thermodynamic data on dilute solutions. Wagner proposed a Taylor series expansion for the excess partial molar free energy in order to express the logarithm of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... aqueous corrosion of intermetallic compounds is of interest for four reasons. First, high-temperature materials will not always be at high-temperatures. Damage caused by low-temperature corrosion during fabrication or shutdown could result in catastrophic failures in service. This includes exposure to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003589
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... rate-controlling process, and (2) it is postulated that thermodynamic equilibrium is established locally through the growing scale. From the first postulate it follows that the more general Nernst-Planck flux formula must be used (instead of Fick's first law), which states that the flow of ions and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... structure first forms on cooling from the liquid state, it is generally followed by several others structures. After primary dendritic solidification, the liquid that remains between the grains and the dendrite arms can successively transform into peritectic and/or eutectic structures. While modeling of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... are two broad categories of phenomena ( Fig. 2 ). The first involves local inelastic straining in the material surrounding the crack tip, which reduces the intensity of the stress singularity. Inelastic straining can occur by one of numerous mechanisms, including dislocation glide in metallic alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... specifics of induction heating and heat treating applications. The article discusses the nonlinear and interrelated nature of a particular heat transfer phenomenon, physical property, and skin effect. It also presents simple case studies and general physical laws governing different heat transfer modes. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
.... Phys ., Vol 72 , 1992 , p 1350 – 1355 10.1063/1.351745 97. Gunton J.D. , San Miguel M. , and Sahni P.S. , The Dynamics of First-Order Phase Transitions , Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena , Vol 8 , Domb C. and Lebowitz J.L. , Ed., Academic Press...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
..., and so on. The use of thermodynamic modeling tools holds the promise of providing a ready source of such information. Thermodynamic modeling has been used for many years in the processing of metallic materials. However, it would be true to say that the first major use of such modeling was in...