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finite element analysis

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract When complex designs, transient loadings, and nonlinear material behavior must be evaluated, computer-based techniques are used. This is where the finite-element analysis (FEA) is most applicable and provides considerable assistance in design analysis as well as failure analysis. This...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... applications. It discusses the mathematics behind classical beamforming, full matrix capture, and total focusing methods of imaging. The article shows how ultrasonic array data can be simulated by direct numerical methods (most commonly using finite-element methods), analytical methods, or hybrid methods. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... solve differential equations consist of lumped-parameter methods or the so-called meshed-solution methods (such as finite-element analysis). If the problem can be simplified for the use of ordinary differential equations, then a lumped-parameter model may be used. A lumped-parameter model may help...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... consideration here, the right side applies equally well to other mathematical/computational tools (e.g., finite-element structural analysis) that together fall under the heading of CAE. Fig. 5 Engineering component design processes. Left side depicts a hardware-based approach; right side is an analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... field analysis plastic deformation finite-element analysis fracture model IN VERY BROAD TERMS, MODELING OF FRACTURE DURING DEFORMATION PROCESSES has been a major focal point for production engineers since cracking first occurred as a source of scrap in manufacturing. G. Sachs, in his 1954...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005414
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... has been widely recognized as an effective tool for the analysis of metalforming processes. The finite-element method has the advantage over other analytical methods, such as slip line, upper bound, and so on, in its ability to generate detailed and accurate information. The main advantage of FEM is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
.... Arbitrary planes of crack extension are allowed by the use of sensor elements. Of course, such analysis schemes are constrained by the assumption of continuously distributed dislocation theory, essentially an extension of the simple model of Navarro and de los Rios ( Ref 26 ) to a more complex 2-D...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... a crystal can open up voids. These concepts are instructive but somewhat oversimplified, because the deformation of metallic alloys is not uniform everywhere. For example Fig. 2 shows the results of finite-element analysis calculations for the strain distribution in polycrystalline metals composed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... pressure, is a scalar quantity and was previously defined in Eq 1 . Figure 3 shows a free-body diagram of forces on a fluid element in a static fluid. Analysis of these forces shows that pressure at a point in a static fluid acts with the same magnitude in all directions: (Eq 8) p n = p x...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
...), and the finite-element method (FEM). The slab method and upper bound method of analysis assume a known deformation field in the plastically deforming body and assume this field either satisfies the force equilibrium (SM) or power-conservation equations (UBM) to determine the stress field or the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... would also be enormously valuable to the design and prediction of materials behavior. A database could foster the use of more robabilistic design and structural reliability analyses. Finite-element analysis and molecular dynamics simulations are two computational techniques that can be employed to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... simulation of quench processes: turbulence, near-wall treatment, and boiling heat transfer. The effectiveness of these methods is then discussed, along with the use of the resultant heat-transfer values in finite-element analysis simulations. An example of CFD as applied to a high-pressure gas quench is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., a combination of careful experiments and detailed finite-element analysis has been successfully applied to represent a wide range of the observed physical phenomena ( Ref 102 ). Although the results presented as follows are mainly for carbon steels, the method can be applied to other technologically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... of transient three-dimensional finite-element analysis of the copper mold and its support structure during cyclic loading with measured fatigue cycle-to-failure data ( Ref 38 ). In addition to adopting practices to lower the maximum surface temperature, the mold lifetime was predicted to increase by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... computer simulations that integrate mathematical models of complex metallurgical processes with computer models used in component and process design. Currently, computational simulation is used in both product design and manufacturing process development with tools such as finite-element analysis (FEA) and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., and allow the engineer to insert a crack into the geometry. The shape, size, and orientation of the crack are chosen, and the software automatically remeshes around the crack geometry. The cracked mesh is then sent back to the finite-element software for analysis. A nice example is shown in Fig. 9...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... software beginning in the 1970s and 1980s led to the ability to simulate much more complex processing problems, often based on finite-difference or finite-element numerical techniques. These latter approaches have also enabled the simulation of coupled phenomena, such as those involving simultaneous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005422
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... ( Ref 7 , Ref 8 , Ref 9 , Ref 10 , Ref 11 , Ref 12 , Ref 13 , Ref 14 , Ref 15 , Ref 16 , Ref 17 , Ref 18 , Ref 19 , Ref 20 , Ref 21 , Ref 22 , Ref 23 , Ref 24 ). However, models based on cellular automata ( Ref 25 , 26 ), finite elements ( Ref 27 ), and molecular dynamics ( Ref 28...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
...-drawing of AA3104, successfully predicting the ear profiles as a function of initial texture after cold rolling subsequent to initial hot rolling ( Ref 27 ) ( Fig. 3 ). Finite-element (FE) models using simplified anisotropic behavior were used to derive the stress and strain boundary conditions. Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... concentrations of individual elements and the overall composition of an alloy can change during a diffusion-controlled process. A series of applications give examples of how various diffusional processes can be modeled with the equations. Also, the applications are intended to further extend the reader's...