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final-polishing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Zirconium and hafnium surfaces require cleaning and finishing prior to many processes including joining, heat treating, plating, forming, and final surface finishing. This article provides information on surface treatment processes, surface soil removal, blast cleaning, chemical...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... removed, can obscure the true structure of the specimen being examined. In the traditional method, preparation entails grinding with 400 grit SiC abrasive, rough polishing with 9 μm diamond paste on a napless cloth and 0.3 μm Al 2 O 3 slurry on a medium-nap cloth, and final polishing with colloidal...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Polishing is the final step in producing a deformation-free surface that is flat, scratch-free, and mirror-like in appearance. Such a surface is necessary for subsequent metallographic interpretation, both qualitative and quantitative. The polishing technique used should not introduce extraneous structures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... ceramic materials that are final polished with colloidal silica produce damage-free samples. In the final-polished condition, surface features such as porosity, cracks, inclusions, and other defects can be observed. In most cases, however, an etching step is used to reveal microstructural features such...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... retaining graphite but suffer from the limitation that they are less efficient in removing abrasion scratches. With two-stage polishing, a napless cloth is used for the rough polishing stage, while a low-nap or napless cloth is used for the final diamond polishing stage. After polishing, the specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... types, such as Al 2 O 3 or SiC Grease stick To produce a rough polished finish and to remove imperfections left by hand wheel grinding. Also use as a preparatory operation for a final polish corresponding to standard No. 4 mill finish. This is the usual starting on cold-rolled sheet. Polishing No...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... martensite can be seen in bright field, although rather faintly. Fig. 51 Microstructure of full-annealed Cu-30%Zn etched using Klemm’s I reagent and viewed using (a) bright field, (b) oblique illumination, and (c) Nomarski DIC. Excessive relief was produced during final polishing. Magnification: 15...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... surfaces from highly smooth initial surfaces. A final finish of less than 0.05 μm can be obtained if the initial surface roughness (root mean square) does not exceed 0.18 to 0.20 μm. Electropolishing was primarily developed for polishing metallurgical specimens and for polishing of irregular shapes that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Rough polishing Cloth (a) 2100 23 80-grit silicon carbide 29 None or light application of grease stick Final polishing Cloth (a) 2100 30 220-grit Al 2 O 3 49 Grease stick Spot polishing Cloth (a) 2100 46 220-grit Al 2 O 3 77 Grease stick General buffing Spiral-sewn...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., B-2, and B-3 in Fig. 6(b) are less aggressive rough grinding paths that could ensure that wheel topography is not significantly affected during rough grinding, compared to path B-0 in Fig. 6(a) . Hence, all these alternative paths can be accomplished and the part can be ground to final tolerances...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... melting points can be applied to finally machined, fully heat-treated parts without changing the properties of the part and without thermal distortion of the part. A third advantage is the ability, in most cases, to strip and recoat worn or damaged coatings without changing the properties or dimensions of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... polishing prior to buffing for final finish. In some instances, polishing may be required for removal of burrs, flash, or surface imperfections. Usually, buffing with a sisal wheel prior to final buffing is sufficient. The degree and nature of cleanness required are governed by the subsequent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... final fracture occurred. 1.2× Fig. 166 “Cup and cone” tensile fracture of cylindrical test specimen is typical for ductile metals; in this case, annealed AISI 1035. Fracture originates near the center of the section with multiple cracks that join and spread outward. When cracks reach a region...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... at B in Fig. 704 . The equiaxed dimples visible here resulted from tension overload during final fracture, but before final shear rupture. 6500× Figures 710 and 711 show the mating segments of a fractured AISI type 501 stainless steel torque cylinder from the hub socket of an aircraft...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... no sample preparation ( Ref 31 ). However, most samples will require some sample preparation. In most cases, standard careful metallographic sectioning and polishing techniques should produce adequate samples for EBSD. The standard preparation steps leading up to the final polishing step include...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... for heavy welds. The first polishing operation should be done with very fine grit to remove all surface defects and give a base upon which to build the final finish. Wheels of No. 60 to 80 grit are usually required to remove heavy oxide or deep defects. The first operation should be done dry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... resinate A typical alkaline precleaning cycle may include a 1 to 2 min washing period followed by a 0.5 to 1 min draining period, a 0.5 to 1 min spray-rinse period, and a final 0.5 to 1 min draining period ( Ref 5 ). If a spray alkaline cleaning step does not follow the soak cleaning treatment, the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... coating. In the case of the copper-aluminum alloys cited above, surface pretreatments involving either acid etching ( Ref 4 ) or final polishing in a basic silicate electrolyte ( Ref 7 ) produce a surface that contains a relatively uniform layer of copper, as detected by spatially resolved AES. The...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... machining or final polishing, or when a surface finish of 3.20 μm (125 μin.) or coarser is allowed, an abrasive cleaning method is frequently a good choice. Generally, chemical cleaning methods have fewer degrading effects on surface finish than mechanical methods (unless the chemical used is strongly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... ductile fracture surface of the test sample after partial fracture at room temperature). Below line is region of quasi-cleavage (the brittle fracture surface of the test sample after final fracture at low temperature). SEM, 30× (R.C. Voigt and L.M. Eldoky, University of Kansas) Fracture transition...