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final polishing

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... grinding machine tool factors machining operational factors slicing and slotting wheel selection factors work material factors CERAMICS ARE FINISHED before final use to meet shape, size, finish or surface, and quality requirements. The extent of finishing depends on the application and on the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Zirconium and hafnium surfaces require cleaning and finishing prior to many processes including joining, heat treating, plating, forming, and final surface finishing. This article provides information on surface treatment processes, surface soil removal, blast cleaning, chemical...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Polishing is the final step in producing a deformation-free surface that is flat, scratch-free, and mirror-like in appearance. Such a surface is necessary for subsequent metallographic interpretation, both qualitative and quantitative. The polishing technique used should not introduce extraneous structures...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... removed, can obscure the true structure of the specimen being examined. In the traditional method, preparation entails grinding with 400 grit SiC abrasive, rough polishing with 9 μm diamond paste on a napless cloth and 0.3 μm Al 2 O 3 slurry on a medium-nap cloth, and final polishing with colloidal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is large relative to the platen. The use of “hard,” woven or nonwoven, napless surfaces for polishing with diamond abrasives (rather than softer cloths, such as canvas, billiard, and felt) maintains flatness. Rigid grinding discs (RGDs) yield surfaces with exceptional flatness. Final polishing with...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... retaining graphite but suffer from the limitation that they are less efficient in removing abrasion scratches. With two-stage polishing, a napless cloth is used for the rough polishing stage, while a low-nap or napless cloth is used for the final diamond polishing stage. After polishing, the specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... types, such as Al 2 O 3 or SiC Grease stick To produce a rough polished finish and to remove imperfections left by hand wheel grinding. Also use as a preparatory operation for a final polish corresponding to standard No. 4 mill finish. This is the usual starting on cold-rolled sheet. Polishing No...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Rough polishing Cloth (a) 2100 23 80-grit silicon carbide 29 None or light application of grease stick Final polishing Cloth (a) 2100 30 220-grit Al 2 O 3 49 Grease stick Spot polishing Cloth (a) 2100 46 220-grit Al 2 O 3 77 Grease stick General buffing Spiral-sewn...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... polishing prior to buffing for final finish. In some instances, polishing may be required for removal of burrs, flash, or surface imperfections. Usually, buffing with a sisal wheel prior to final buffing is sufficient. The degree and nature of cleanness required are governed by the subsequent...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... some overlapping in the use of these terms occurs. Acid pickling is a more severe treatment for removal of scale from semifinished mill products, forgings, or castings, whereas acid cleaning generally refers to the use of acidic solutions for final or near-final preparation of steel surfaces before...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... for heavy welds. The first polishing operation should be done with very fine grit to remove all surface defects and give a base upon which to build the final finish. Wheels of No. 60 to 80 grit are usually required to remove heavy oxide or deep defects. The first operation should be done dry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., alkaline plus acid cleaning, and finally ultrasonics each progressively produces a cleaner surface. In addition to these conventional methods, very exotic and highly technical procedures have been developed in the electronics and space efforts to produce clean surfaces far above the normal requirements for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... prevent contamination. A preferred practice is to use specific barrels exclusively for processing aluminum. Because aluminum is more easily worked than many other metals, few aluminum parts require polishing prior to buffing for final finish. In some instances, polishing may be required for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... resinate A typical alkaline precleaning cycle may include a 1 to 2 min washing period followed by a 0.5 to 1 min draining period, a 0.5 to 1 min spray-rinse period, and a final 0.5 to 1 min draining period ( Ref 5 ). If a spray alkaline cleaning step does not follow the soak cleaning treatment, the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... to a significant degree. For this reason, it is desirable that a diffusion treatment be carried out at as low a temperature as possible if it is the final heat-treatment step for a material and if the workpiece is temperature sensitive. The authors wish to acknowledge the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... alloys that are subjected to elevated temperatures in service. Consequently, the dense, tenacious oxide that develops on formed or machined finished parts during final heat treatment is allowed to remain as protection against further oxidation. The complex oxides and scale that form on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... For example, the adhesion of paint films applied to dichromated parts can be adversely affected by the presence of a dusty material on the parts after final rinsing and drying. Chemical analysis might indicate this material to be a sulfate precipitated from the domestic water that was being used to...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... glass products are done by the manufacturers of the final products. For other processes, such as decorating and sealing, the glass manufacturer's product is almost always used directly by a customer, or the customer of a distributor of the product. Both the glass and glass-ceramic materials families...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... thin castings. As cooling rate increases (by direct quenching of the casting as it ejected from the die rather than air cooling), thick castings have greater ultimate tensile strength and yield strength, but ductility is reduced. Finally, the interaction between thickness and cooling rate shows that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., B-2, and B-3 in Fig. 6(b) are less aggressive rough grinding paths that could ensure that wheel topography is not significantly affected during rough grinding, compared to path B-0 in Fig. 6(a) . Hence, all these alternative paths can be accomplished and the part can be ground to final tolerances...