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film-vacuum interface

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... chemical processes occurring at the film-vacuum interface during IBAD and dual-ion-beam sputtering with illustrations. The article also reviews the methods used for large-area, high-volume implementation of IBAD and the modes of film formation for IBAD. It contains a table that presents information on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Coatings and thin films can be studied with surface analysis methods because their inherently small depth allows characterization of the surface composition, interface composition, and in-depth distribution of composition. This article describes principles and examples of common...
Book Chapter

By Donald M. Mattox
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... In plasma-based ion plating the substrate is in contact with a plasma, and the ions are accelerated from the plasma and arrive at the surface with a spectrum of energies. In vacuum-based ion plating the film material is deposited in a vacuum and the bombardment is from an ion or plasma “gun.” The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... deposition (PVD) film can be understood by understanding the film formation process. The formation of a useful and commercially attractive engineered surface using any PVD process (vacuum deposition, sputter deposition, or ion plating) involves several stages: Choice of the substrate (“real surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... films are deposited in an oxygen ambient at pressures <1 torr and do not require systems with ultrahigh vacuum base pressures. Gas flow rates of 10 standard cm 3 /min at the desired deposition pressure can be achieved by gating the pump with the total system pressure controlled by a solenoid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... vaporizes materials by thermal means (that is, evaporation or sublimation), but other vapor sources can be used. The advantage of vacuum evaporation is that films of a variety of materials can be deposited at high rates over large areas in a very pure form. Limitations of vacuum evaporation are that often...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract Vacuum heat treating consists of thermally treating metals and alloys in cylindrical steel chambers that have been pumped down to less than normal atmospheric pressure. This article provides a detailed account of the operations and designs of vacuum furnaces, discussing their pressure...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... by either converter metallurgy or ladle metallurgy. The article provides a detailed discussion on the converter and ladle metallurgy. The converter metallurgy includes melt refinement in argon oxygen decarburization (AOD) vessels and vacuum oxygen decarburization (VODC) in a converter vessel. The...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... penetrate into and modify the substrate surface. A comparison of the process characteristics is provided in Table 1 . Table 1 Comparison of PVD process characteristics Process Processing temperature, °C Throwing power Coating materials Coating applications and special features Vacuum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
...-scale cyclic motion (fretting) can take place at this interface that, if the contact stresses are large enough, can result in disruption of the oxide film by the counterface (right). Fig. 5 Schematics across spatial scale showing aspects of mechanically assisted corrosion process for a modular...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003056
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... techniques are the most common and give the best resistor properties. The most popular method of thin-film deposition is vacuum evaporation, in which the charge or material to be deposited is heated in a vacuum ( Fig. 2 a). Vapors condense onto the cooler ceramic substrate. For this application, the charge...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... caused by ion beam etching Vacuum evaporation is a common technique for preparing thin-film coatings that have application in various technologies. In vacuum evaporation, a crucible containing the source material is heated to temperatures high enough to create a significant evaporation rate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... hydroxylated molecular oxide species, but the quadrupole analyzer has insufficient resolution to separate the interferences. Although some of these molecular species could be due to hydrogen background in the vacuum system, they are primarily indicative of the hydrated nature of the film. There also appear to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... in this article. Additional information on vacuum pumping systems can be found in the article “Scanning Electron Microscopy” in Volume 10 of ASM Handbook, formerly the 9th Edition Metals Handbook. Evaporated thin films are prepared in a bell jar under high-vacuum conditions by resistance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... the conversion coating to the substrate. This is unlike a film formed by physical vapor deposition, where there is a very clear interface between the film and the substrate and where essentially none of the substrate is distributed through the deposited film. Poor film adhesion can result at such an...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... and making a double film, hence the name bifilm. The opposing halves of the film cannot bond, being a ceramic-to-ceramic interface; thus, all entrained oxides effectively constitute a crack (feature “A-B” in Fig. 1 ) in the liquid. Most pouring actions involve such severe surface turbulence that they...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and thin surface oxide films and diffuse them away from the bonding surfaces, so that they will not impede the formation of the required metallic bonds across the bond interface. Similarly, the joining of silver at 200 °C (390 °F) requires no deformation to break up and disperse oxides, because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... earlier due to the high surface expansion and sliding ( Fig. 4 ). With increasing contact times the interface friction starts increasing at lower temperatures. Zinc sulfide films break down at even lower temperatures than graphite films. However, the boron nitride films are very stable to very high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... surface reactions, deposition and sputter cleaning, and specimen fracture. The vacuum system may also be equipped with special-purpose auxiliary equipment such as a fracture attachment for in situ fracture studies, an evaporation unit for thin-film deposition, and a hot/cold stage to conduct elevated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... conductive, or the area of interest must be properly grounded. Insulating samples, including thick insulating films (>300 Å), cannot be analyzed. Samples must also be compatible with a high-vacuum environment (<10 −7 Pa, or 1 × 10 −9 torr). Typical applications for AES include: Microscopic...