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film radiography

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...Abstract Abstract Film radiography requires the development of the exposed film so that the latent image becomes visible for viewing. It describes the general characteristics of film, including speed, gradient, and graininess, and the factors affecting film selection and exposure time...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 18 Arrangements for the in-motion single-wall, single-image film radiography of longitudinal welds in line pipe, using (a) a conventional portable x-ray unit and (b) a rod-anode x-ray tube More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of performance characteristics for film radiography, real-time radiography, and X-ray computed tomography is presented in a table. A functional block diagram of a typical computed tomography system is provided. The article discusses CT scanning geometry that is used to acquire the necessary transmission data...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... intensifying screens for film radiography. The commonly used fluorescent screens consist of a plastic substrate coated with a powdered luminescent material and an epoxy binder. The spatial resolution of the screen depends on the grain size of the luminescent material and the range and distribution...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., and many other factors that govern the exposure and processing of a neutron radiograph are similar to those for radiography using X-rays or gamma rays. gamma-ray radiography image conversion neutron radiography shadow formation X-ray films X-ray production X-ray radiography RADIOGRAPHY...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...Abstract Abstract Radiography is the process or technique of producing images of a solid material on a paper/photographic film or on a fluorescent screen by means of radiation particles or electromagnetic waves of short wavelength. This article reviews the general characteristics and safety...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-particle inspection radiography surface discontinuities surface inspection ultrasonic inspection NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT), also known as nondestructive evaluation (NDE), includes various techniques to characterize materials without damage. The methods of NDE involve dimensional metrology...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the weld and onto a sensitized film that is in direct contact with the back of the weld. When the film is developed, gas pockets, slag inclusions, cracks, or poor penetration are visible on the film. Conventional radiography, which uses x-ray machines or radioactive isotopes such as iridium-192 and cobalt...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... the weld and onto a sensitized film that is in direct contact with the back of the weld. When the film is developed, gas pockets, slag inclusions, cracks, or poor penetration are visible on the film. Conventional radiography, which uses x-ray machines or radioactive isotopes such as iridium-192 and cobalt...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 6 Latitude curves for the radiographic inspection of steel at film densities ranging from 1.5 to 3.0. (a) Effect of tube voltage on latitude of a type 2 radiographic film. (b) Effect of film type on latitude for radiography using 250 kV x-rays. Curves were prepared from data obtained using More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 17 Schematic of techniques employing different arrangements of radiation source, cylinder, and film for the single-wall, single-image radiography of cylindrical sections using external and internal radiation sources. See text for discussion. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... at image densities of the order of 3.0 on a log scale and, therefore, the radiographs can only be viewed in high-intensity transmitted light. If the image can be viewed with the film held up in front of normal light bulbs, then the density is much too low. As an alternative to film radiography, where...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... to the inspection of bonded structures, including visual inspection, ultrasonic inspection, X-ray radiography, and neutron radiography. The evaluation and correlation of inspection results are also discussed. The article concludes with information on the effects of ultrasonic wave interference in the ultrasonic...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... (sharp corners or radii) and/or made with alloys that are prone to hot tearing are often subjected to liquid penetrant inspection. Radiographic Inspection The term radiography refers to a method that produces a two-dimensional permanent image on film or paper that has been exposed to unabsorbed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-ultrasonics, radiography, X-ray computed tomography, thermography, low-frequency vibration methods, acoustic emission, eddy current testing, optical holography, and shearography. The article presents some examples are for fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites. Many of the techniques have general...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., electromagnetic acoustic transducer, radiography, thermography, and low-frequency vibration methods. The article also provides information on NDE methods commonly used for metal-matrix composites. acoustic emission computed tomography digital radiography eddy-current electromagnetic acoustic transducer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... film techniques and are becoming widely available for specific failure analysis applications. Backscatter x-ray imaging, computed radiography, digital radiography, and computed tomography (CT) are available to investigate the volume of the component where traditional RT and UT techniques may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., and availability of support services so the range of available techniques is reduced. For example, x-ray radiography is commonly carried out at the fabrication stage but is generally not a realistic inspection method in service, where gamma radiography is generally employed due to its portability and independence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... image. A thicker part generates more scattered radiation (a component of geometric unsharpness). Most radiation detectors fall into three categories: film (analog), computed radiography (digital), and digital radiography (digital). Film is historically the most commonly used radiation detector. Film...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... capability for lack of bonding as long as the interfacial crack breaks the surface. They are completely ineffective for defects that have no path to the surface. Conventional film radiography is not suitable for detecting the extremely small defects involved in diffusion welding, but the use of x-ray...