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film radiography

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Film radiography requires the development of the exposed film so that the latent image becomes visible for viewing. It describes the general characteristics of film, including speed, gradient, and graininess, and the factors affecting film selection and exposure time. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Radiography is the process or technique of producing images of a solid material on a paper/photographic film or on a fluorescent screen by means of radiation particles or electromagnetic waves of short wavelength. This article reviews the general characteristics and safety principles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... performance characteristics for film radiography, real-time radiography, and X-ray computed tomography is presented in a table. A functional block diagram of a typical computed tomography system is provided. The article discusses CT scanning geometry that is used to acquire the necessary transmission data. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... technique of choice for x-ray inspection. In general, a CR system has a reasonably low system cost and a much smaller footprint than a film system. In addition, the system output is a digital image stored on a computer and available for analysis even from remote locations. Digital radiography (DR) is one...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... other factors that govern the exposure and processing of a neutron radiograph are similar to those for radiography using X-rays or gamma rays. gamma-ray radiography image conversion neutron radiography shadow formation X-ray films X-ray production X-ray radiography RADIOGRAPHY is a...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... pouring or other types of surface turbulence. These actions entrain (fold in) the surface film to create entrainment defects. These are principally: Bubbles (that in turn create bubble trails) Bifilms, which are doubled-over surface films that act as cracklike defects Various entrained debris...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-producing mechanisms Flaw-producing mechanism Generic flaw type Metal-to-metal Metal-to-core Core Surface Adhesive Disbonds, internal X … … … … Disbonds, part edge X X … … … Disbonds, high core X … … … … Porosity X X X … X Unremoved protective release film...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... radiography, which uses x-ray machines or radioactive isotopes such as iridium-192 and cobalt-60 for generating penetrating radiation, is used to record the internal flaws of the object on a radiographic film. Because of the danger of these rays, only qualified personnel are authorized to perform these tests...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... radiography, which uses x-ray machines or radioactive isotopes such as iridium-192 and cobalt-60 for generating penetrating radiation, is used to record the internal flaws of the object on a radiographic film. Because of the danger of these rays, only qualified personnel are authorized to perform these tests...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-gimbaled bubbler (which limits inspection near the edges). Pulse-echo is mainly used in the industry when access is limited to one side or when film-type foreign material inclusions are possible. These foreign materials have acoustic impedance very close to the composite and thus do not cause much...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...). Pulse-echo is mainly used in the industry when access is limited to one side or when film-type foreign material inclusions are possible. These foreign materials have acoustic impedance very close to the composite and thus do not cause much difference in TT attenuation (less than 0.5 dB). However, these...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... integrity; laminations; hydrogen cracking Radiography Changes in density from voids, inclusions, material variations; placement of internal parts Can be used to inspect wide range of materials and thicknesses; versatile; film provides record of inspection Radiation safety requires precautions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... radiation represents regions lacking attenuative material, and the difference can be easily imaged on a radiographic film. Gamma radiography is typically an in-field application technique, and its use is restricted to dense or thick metallic materials. Crack detection sensitivity of this method is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... inspection X-ray or γ ray; film processing and viewing equipment Most internal discontinuities and flaws; limited by direction of discontinuity Provides permanent record of surface and internal flaws; applicable to any alloy Usually not suitable for fillet weld inspection; film exposure and processing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... neutrons passing through or reflecting from test object cast shadows or patterns on film or digital imaging plates Manufacturing, weld inspection, finding objects in closed containments, metrology of enclosed objects, thickness Hazardous radiation operation; not sensitive to discontinuities less than 1–2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... 3.0 on a log scale and, therefore, the radiographs can only be viewed in high-intensity transmitted light. If the image can be viewed with the film held up in front of normal light bulbs, then the density is much too low. As an alternative to film radiography, where it can take 20 min to develop a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... interfacial crack breaks the surface. They are completely ineffective for defects that have no path to the surface. Conventional film radiography is not suitable for detecting the extremely small defects involved in diffusion welding, but the use of x-ray microfocus techniques coupled with digital image...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... traditional film techniques and are becoming widely available for specific failure analysis applications. Backscatter x-ray imaging, computed radiography, digital radiography, and computed tomography (CT) are available to investigate the volume of the component where traditional RT and UT techniques may not...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... with alloys that are prone to hot tearing are often subjected to liquid penetrant inspection. The term radiography refers to a method that produces a two-dimensional permanent image on film or paper that has been exposed to unabsorbed radiation passing through the test piece. This technique requires...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006479
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Industrial Radiographic Film Processing” ASTM E142 “Method for Controlling Quality of Radiographic Testing” ASTM E2007 “Standard Guide for Computed Radiography” ASTM E2738 “Standard Practice for Digital Imaging and Communication Nondestructive Evaluation (DICONDE) for Computed Radiography (CR...