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film formation modes

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... reduction in surface energy required for localized deformation ( Ref 37 , 38 , 39 ), molecular gas pressure ( Ref 40 ), the rupture of protective films ( Ref 41 , 42 ), and anodic dissolution at active sites ( Ref 43 ) are associated with hydrogen embrittlement and stress-corrosion cracking (SCC...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... chemical processes occurring at the film-vacuum interface during IBAD and dual-ion-beam sputtering with illustrations. The article also reviews the methods used for large-area, high-volume implementation of IBAD and the modes of film formation for IBAD. It contains a table that presents information on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article describes eight stages of the atomistic film growth: vaporization of the material, transport of the material to the substrate, condensation and nucleation of the atoms, nuclei growth, interface formation, film growth, changes in structure during the deposition, and...
Book Chapter

By Donald M. Mattox
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... modes associated with the failure ( Ref 19 ). Energetic particle bombardment prior to and during the initial stages of film formation can enhance adhesion by: Removing contaminant layers Changing the surface chemistry Generating a microscopically rough surface Increasing the nucleation...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... shrinkage. This article describes the imperfections in the solidification process including porosity, inclusions, oxide films, secondary phases, hot tears, and metal penetration. It talks about the purpose of the gating system and the risering system in the casting process. alloys casting gating...
Book Chapter

By S.L. Rohde
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... the materials, leads to the formation of “hot spots” on the target; the hot spots generate stresses that cause fracture of the brittle target materials. For this reason, it may be preferable to deposit insulating films reactively from a metal source. Although compound materials can be readily...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... between 200 and 700 °C (390 and 1290 °F), but also deposits a lubricant film that aids in metal flow. For example, in hot forging, the lubricant is often a fine suspension of graphite particles in water, with surfactants and binders added to aid in the spreading and the formation of an adherent lubricant...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... incubation period, the γ film transforms to an alpha-alumina (α) form, which oxidizes and grows at a much greater rate. When alloying elements are added to the pure aluminum, both the rate of formation and the nature of the resultant oxide are changed dramatically. While the common alloying elements (copper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005957
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract Furnaces are one of the most versatile types of industrial appliances that span many different areas of use. This article discusses the classification of various furnaces used in heat treating based on the mode of operation (batch-type furnaces and continuous-type furnaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... thin film vapor deposition X-ray diffraction BOTH METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE are concerned with the relationship between structure and the macroscopic properties of materials. Structure can be important at different levels. For example, on the atomic scale, structure dictates the strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
..., SCC in titanium alloys can be readily demonstrated in precracked fracture mechanics specimens in a variety of environments, although failures in service tend to be rare because the great resistance to pitting of such systems makes crack initiation difficult ( Ref 204 ). However, if the passive film is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... on contamination removal, plasma surface modification, plasma-induced grafting, and plasma film deposition. contamination removal plasma discharge reactions plasma film deposition plasma processing equipment plasma surface modification plasma-induced grafting plastic plasma treatment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article reviews cleaning and finishing operations that have proven to be effective on titanium, its alloys, and semi-fabricated titanium products. It explains how to remove scale, tarnish films, grease, and other soils and how to achieve required finishes and/or improve wear and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... corrosion resistance of titanium alloys results from the formation of very stable, continuous, highly adherent, and protective surface oxide films. Because titanium metal itself is highly reactive and has an extremely high affinity for oxygen, these beneficial surface oxide films form spontaneously and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006637
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... composition of bulk samples, thin-film composition and layer thickness, impurity profiles, damage depth profile, and surface peak—as well as the various codes developed to simulate it. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry backscattering channel-energy conversion energy-depth conversion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... environments, use a variety of polymer chemistries and are constructed in a variety of methods and designs. This article provides a description of the service conditions for the polymeric flooring systems. It provides information on polymeric flooring systems, including thin-film coatings, self-leveling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... performance characteristics for film radiography, real-time radiography, and X-ray computed tomography is presented in a table. A functional block diagram of a typical computed tomography system is provided. The article discusses CT scanning geometry that is used to acquire the necessary transmission data. It...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... other factors that govern the exposure and processing of a neutron radiograph are similar to those for radiography using X-rays or gamma rays. gamma-ray radiography image conversion neutron radiography shadow formation X-ray films X-ray production X-ray radiography RADIOGRAPHY is a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... supported by themselves due to their sizes and shapes (e.g., nanoparticles and nanorods), TEM grids with support films made of carbon and silicon nitrides are required ( Fig. 5b ). Grids are typically 3 mm (0.12 in.) in diameter and ~100 μm thick. A focused ion beam (FIB) instrument can also be used for...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... tensile forces, is different from, and occurs later than, dendrite coherency in the context of fluidity when the shear strength of the network is important. A liquid film must still be present on the dendrite or grain boundaries. A significant temperature decrease must occur after coherency. The...