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film formation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... chemical processes occurring at the film-vacuum interface during IBAD and dual-ion-beam sputtering with illustrations. The article also reviews the methods used for large-area, high-volume implementation of IBAD and the modes of film formation for IBAD. It contains a table that presents information on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... the mechanism of film formation of acrylic latex polymers and its effect on final coating properties. It discusses the types of waterborne acrylic latex coatings based on chemical properties and based on applications such as primers, intermediate coats, topcoats, stains, and direct-to-substrate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... cases, other processing information can be used to deal with this matter. The deposition or film formation rate can often be used to estimate the film thickness to well within one period thickness. For a totally unknown film, however, other methods must be used. The period thickness depends on the index...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... enfolding of the surface, leading automatically to the folding-in and submersion of its surface film ( Fig. 1 ). Such surface turbulence leads to entrainment events that are usually rapid, requiring only milliseconds. The creation of a new surface and the time available for the formation of a new oxide film...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... image formation are discussed in the article “Principles of Radiography” in this Volume. Film selection and exposure time are two major factors in film radiography. The selection of radiographic film for a particular application is generally a compromise between the desired quality of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article describes eight stages of the atomistic film growth: vaporization of the material, transport of the material to the substrate, condensation and nucleation of the atoms, nuclei growth, interface formation, film growth, changes in structure during the deposition, and...
Book Chapter

By Donald M. Mattox
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article begins with a list of the factors that influence the properties of physical vapor deposited films. It describes the steps involved in ion plating, namely, surface preparation, nucleation, interface formation, and film growth. The article discusses the factors influencing...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... shrinkage. This article describes the imperfections in the solidification process including porosity, inclusions, oxide films, secondary phases, hot tears, and metal penetration. It talks about the purpose of the gating system and the risering system in the casting process. alloys casting gating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article provides a description of the classification, industrial applications, microstructures, physical, chemical, corrosion, and mechanical properties of zirconium and its alloys. It discusses the formation of oxide films and the effects of water, temperature, and pH on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... corrosion: galvanic coupling, differential aeration, alkalinity, and stray currents. The resistance of lead and lead alloys to corrosion by a wide variety of chemicals is attributed to the polarization of local anodes caused by the formation of a relatively insoluble surface film of lead corrosion products...
Book Chapter

By S.L. Rohde
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... the materials, leads to the formation of “hot spots” on the target; the hot spots generate stresses that cause fracture of the brittle target materials. For this reason, it may be preferable to deposit insulating films reactively from a metal source. Although compound materials can be readily...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) involves the formation of a coating by the reaction of the coating substance with the substrate. Serving as an introduction to CVD, the article provides information on metals, ceramics, and diamond films formed by the CVD process. It further discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... between 200 and 700 °C (390 and 1290 °F), but also deposits a lubricant film that aids in metal flow. For example, in hot forging, the lubricant is often a fine suspension of graphite particles in water, with surfactants and binders added to aid in the spreading and the formation of an adherent lubricant...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... incubation period, the γ film transforms to an alpha-alumina (α) form, which oxidizes and grows at a much greater rate. When alloying elements are added to the pure aluminum, both the rate of formation and the nature of the resultant oxide are changed dramatically. While the common alloying elements (copper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... undergo an increase in hardness when tempered at about 230 °C (445 °F) as a result of austenite decomposition. Steel tempered at about 260 °C (500 °F) undergoes a loss of toughness associated with the formation of carbide films around prior martensite plates ( Fig. 24 ). Alloy steels undergo temper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... thin film vapor deposition X-ray diffraction BOTH METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE are concerned with the relationship between structure and the macroscopic properties of materials. Structure can be important at different levels. For example, on the atomic scale, structure dictates the strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... environmental regulations and worker health hazards, to enable ease of application and formation of the finalized dry film, and to provide a suitably long service life for a given environment. The formulation of coatings is not discussed in this Volume, because that is an altogether different science than the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...-plane distance constant and by imaging a millimeter scale. The image width, seen through a 35-mm camera viewfinder, is usually about 95 to 97% of the 35-mm film format. For view camera work, the image of the scale can be directly compared with a scale placed against the ground-glass screen or a scale...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... details postcoating application quality requirements, including measuring of dry-film thickness, assessing intercoat cleanliness, verifying minimum and maximum recoat intervals, performing holiday/pinhole detection, conducting cure/hardness testing, and assessing adhesion of the applied coating system...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... corrosion resistance of titanium alloys results from the formation of very stable, continuous, highly adherent, and protective surface oxide films. Because titanium metal itself is highly reactive and has an extremely high affinity for oxygen, these beneficial surface oxide films form spontaneously and...