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field metallography

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... polished specimen and after etching, and is the most commonly used examination mode in metallography. Polarized light is widely used to examine the structure of as-polished metals with a noncubic crystal structure. However, it is still useful to examine the as-polished surface in bright field to detect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... measurements belongs to the field referred to as stereology. This is the body of measurements that describe the relationships between measurements made on the two-dimensional plane-of-polish to predict the nature of the three-dimensional microstructural features being measured. To facilitate communications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Metallography” in this Volume. While light microscopy is an important metallurgical tool, it has a number of limitations: Spatial resolution: Conventional light microscopes cannot resolve features smaller than ∼1 μm. Depth of field: Light microscopes cannot image rough surfaces; samples must be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... representative calibration standards, or difficulties with field inspections. During a failure analysis there is no predetermined NDE method as there is during manufacturing part acceptance. It is important for the failure analyst to communicate with the NDE practitioner to determine to what degree the NDE...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... analysis process is image based, the accurate recording of the fracture feature information is essential. In addition, the photographic image record transcends field documentation, laboratory documentation, microscopic documentation, scanning electron microscopic documentation, optical metallography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... study by Coffin and Rogers ( Ref 20 ). Slip-line field analysis of sheet drawing was used in combination with very carefully executed experiments on various copper alloys, followed by extensive optical metallography. Results showed that hydrostatic tension at the centerline exclusively led to void...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... stress field present in the part, it is important to know about the specific stress tensor component concerned. Many studies focus only on the principle stress component, σ 11 , when the shear component, σ 13 , should also be considered. Indeed, many experimental techniques assume a perfectly biaxial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...-based image analysis system can measure and statistically analyze a variety of surface features over a number of fields of view very quickly and accurately. Table 1 provides a list of common image analysis features and field measurements. Table 1 Quantitative image analysis Field...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... specimens if the material being sampled is rather large. The second group of measurements belongs to the field referred to as stereology. This body of measurements describes the relationship between measurements made on the two-dimensional plane of polish and the three-dimensional microstructural...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., depth of field is an important criterion in macrophotography, because many objects to be photographed are not flat. Basically, depth of field improves as the f -number of the lens is increased and is reduced as the magnification increases. The focal length of the lens has a minor influence on the depth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... including nondestructive evaluation techniques such as penetrant testing, boroscopic examination, ultrasonic testing, and radiography as well as field metallography including replication and sample removal can identify if characteristics associated with damage are present. (These techniques are discussed in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...) Chisel steel with fracture lines. (a)through (e) Actual size. (f) 6× In the field of macrofractography, Martens observed the fracture surfaces obtained in tension, torsion, bending, and fatigue. In describing the topography of these surfaces, he differentiated between coarse radial shear elements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... applied field in a ferrite steel and three martensite steels with varying carbon content. Source: Ref 10 As an alternative to sectioning and metallography, MBN can be used for the purposes of case depth evaluation for components heat treated via induction hardening, carburizing, nitriding, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... isomorphous phase diagram usually has the general appearance typified by the copper-nickel system ( Fig. 2 ) Temperature is plotted along the ordinate axis, and the alloy composition is shown on the abscissa axis. Three different phase regions, or fields, are present on the diagram: a liquid ( L ) field, a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... expansion of scientific knowledge. The field of organic solids is still constituted by encompassing categories such as polymers, plastics, epoxies, long-chain hydrocarbons, esters, foams, resins, detergents, dyes, organic composites, coal and coal derivatives, wood products, chemical reagents, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... response to disastrous failures. It is also being used by medical administrators and many other fields. Commercial software tools These exist for a variety of functions, including tracking the course of an investigation and suggesting a course of action for the background data collection. In...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... optical detection flaw detection THIS BROAD OVERVIEW of the field of laser-ultrasonics draws from developments at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and elsewhere. The principles of generation and detection are presented, stressing a few key characteristics of laser-ultrasonics. The...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... microscopy are covered in the Section “Metallography” and will not be repeated here. While light microscopy is an important metallurgical tool, it has a number of limitations: Spatial resolution: Conventional light microscopes cannot resolve features smaller than ∼1 μm. Depth of field: Light...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0006544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... constant also has been used for the length of an edge, but the values of edge length are not constant, varying with composition within a phase field and also with temperature due to thermal expansion and contraction. (Reported lattice parameter values are assumed to be room-temperature values unless...