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fiber pull-out

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... are reviewed. These include scratches, fiber pull-out, matrix smears, streaks, erosion of different phases, and fiber and sample edge rounding and relief. References References 1. Hayes B.S. and Gammon L.M. , Microscopy , Composites , Vol 21 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2001...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... CFCC components are: Deflection and bridging of cracks by the ceramic fibers Fiber pull-out from the ceramic matrix (Fiber pull-out is achieved by applying a coating to the fiber, allowing the fiber to be pulled out under stress.) As the matrix cracks, the fibers continue to carry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... pull-out. In the SPF/DB specimen the residual stresses were high enough and the fiber/matrix interface strong enough to cause the matrix cracks to grow through the fiber, resulting in a planar failure surface with little or no fiber pull-out. A shear-lag analysis indicated that the latter failure mode...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... off or pulling out of the reinforcing phase. High-modulus fibers are more effective in wear reduction than the high-strength fibers. Moreover, the higher the modulus of fiber or composite, the less is the wear. The higher the aspect ratio of the reinforcement, the lower is the wear. For a typical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... characteristic feature of the fracture surfaces of the energy-absorbing nonlinear stress-strain behavior is a “brushy” appearance with many pulled-out fibers as shown in Fig. 3 . Note in Fig. 3 that not only are long fiber lengths apparent, but also many holes are visible from which fibers have been pulled...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... understood. The term pultrusion refers to the final product and to the process. Most simply, it refers to a nonhomogeneous compilation of materials pulled through a die. In virtually every case, a continuous reinforcing fiber is integral to the process and the finished product. The matrix used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... adjustment. Figure 11 shows a Lockbolt (Huck International, Inc.) fastener incorporating a sleeve. The pintail is much longer (function of grip length) since the whole grip protrudes out of the sleeve before installation. The assembly drops into the hole; as the Lockbolt is pulled into the sleeve...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... simply, it refers to a method of manufacture wherein a collection of reinforcements saturated with reactive resin is pulled through a heated die that imparts the final geometry to the composite profile. In virtually every case, the continuous reinforcing fiber choices are integral to the processibility...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... as part of composite skin. (a) Test configuration with loading indicated (b) Micrograph of flange tip region (c) FEA mesh used to model the flange tip region (d) Comparison of experimental and analytical results of the pull-out loads for individual specimens Fig. 13 Simplified test specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of the proximity of the end of the specimen. This type of failure often initiates at the end of the specimen rather than adjacent to the fastener. In some instances, the bolt head may be pulled out through the laminate after the bolt is bent and deformed. This mode is frequently associated with countersunk...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... because the fibers tend to fray or shred unless they are cut clean while embedded in the epoxy. Thus, drills with special “clothes pin” points and “fish tail” points have been developed that slice the fibers prior to pulling them out of the drilled hole. If the Kevlar/epoxy part is sandwiched between two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002492
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... constant cross-section components. Fibers, fabrics, and mats are pulled through a die with resin introduced at one end. The die is tapered to apply hydrostatic pressure to the resin resulting in fiber wet-out. An exothermic reaction can occur or heat is added to result in curing of the component. Design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of thermoplastic composites, use of reinforcement and matrix separately was more or less unheard of, due to impregnation difficulties, and molding compounds or prepregs were essentially always required. However, it is possible to impregnate the reinforcement as part of manufacturing starting out with a liquid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005912
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
.... The tension in the optical fiber is related to the draw furnace temperature and the speed at which the fiber is pulled from the fiber preform. The draw furnace temperature, or maximum temperature at the hottest point along the furnace hot zone length, is easily measured with an optical pyrometer. A sight port...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... fasteners is installation in an out-of-grip condition. The actual grip to be fastened must take into account any gaps between the pieces to be joined. Several diverse techniques exist for producing quality holes in advanced composites. Carbon-, aramid-, and boron-fiber-reinforced materials each require...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... into 0° or 90° plies using automated cutting equipment. Since 45° oriented plies are typically combined with 0° and 90° plies to create a layup, seamers have been made that repeatedly pull out a length of tape, butt seam it to a 45° oriented roll start, cut the new seamed section, and advance the section...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
...-01-2756 69. Menzemer C. et al. , Pull-Out Strength of Self-Tapping Fasteners in Aluminum Screw Slot Connections , Light Met. Age , Oct 2008 , p 22 , 24, 26 70. LaBelle J. and Dolby T. , Hex Washer-Head Fastener Pull-Over in Moderately Thin Aluminum , Light Met...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...). (a) Kinematic bc at the upper and lower boundaries of fluid flow within a rectangular channel. (b) The same as in (a), except that the pulling force, F , on the plate is specified instead of the speed. So, this bc on the upper boundary of (b) is dynamic. (c) Kinematic bc on the outer- and inner-cylinder...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... accumulate if the fibers bridging the cracks can sustain the load. (c) After attaining multiple matrix cracks with an equilibrium spacing, fibers fail at flaws with increasing load, and not necessarily in the bridged regions of highest stress. (d) Fibers pull out of their matrix sockets with further...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... to pull. Metal mandrels are used when external pressure is applied during cure. For thick-walled tubing where external pressure causes fiber wrinkling or where tube-geometry changes require internal pressure during cure, alternative mandrel materials are available. Female molds are usually used when...