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fiber orientation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Abstract Abstract Analyzing the structure of composite materials is essential for understanding how the part will perform in service. Assessing fiber volume variations, void content, ply orientation variability, and foreign object inclusions helps in preventing degradation of composite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
..., but the scatter also increases such that the average strength decreases. Source: Ref 6 Fig. 7 Normalized moduli versus fiber orientation for a glass-fiber/epoxy-resin composite (a) and a boron-fiber/epoxy-resin composite (b). The normalized Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poissons' ratio, and major...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... fiber orientation, measure changes in material thickness, and determine elastic and sonic properties. As already mentioned, ultrasonic techniques are well developed and easy to apply to homogeneous materials. However, the nonhomogeneous nature of composite materials introduces an added dimension...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Draping simulation and flat pattern for an aircraft wheel cover Fig. 5 Core sample results Fig. 6 Draping simulation to evaluate ply producibility for an aircraft cowling Fig. 8 Flat patterns as a function of fiber orientations Fig. 7 Splicing of a full-body ply...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... by which the yarns are interlaced. Braiding has many similarities to filament winding. Dry or prepreg yarns, tapes, or tow can be braided over a rotating and removable form or mandrel in a controlled manner to assume various shapes, fiber orientations, and fiber volume fractions. Although braiding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
..., 588– 600 For a standard composite panel or structural shape, the ratio of matrix material (resin, metal, or carbon) to the fiber reinforcement ranges approximately from 1:2 to 2:1. The fiber is the main tailoring element for design properties, while fiber orientation and fillers can provide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... for Polymer Processing , Tucker C.L. III , Ed., Hanser Publishers , Munich, Germany , 1989 24. Advani S.G. and Tucker C.L. , A Numerical Simulation of Short Fiber Orientation in Compression Molding , Polym. Compos. , Vol 11 , 1990 , p 164 – 173 10.1002/pc.750110305 25...
Book Chapter

By John E. Moalli
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... strengths in different directions to effectively handle directionally dependent loads and stresses. It is important to note that not only are composite materials anisotropic because of the macrostructures (fiber orientation and laminate sequence), but also because of the anisotropy in the materials from...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...° unidirectional composite made from Epikote flexibilized resin. V f = 0.5 Fig. 25 Variation of specific damping capacity (Ψ) with temperature for ±10° and ±20° angle-plies made from high-modulus carbon fibers in DX209 epoxy resin. V f = 0.5 Fig. 24 The effect of fiber orientation...
Book Chapter

By Frank K. Ko
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., tapes, or tow can be braided over a rotating and removable form or mandrel in a controlled manner to assume various shapes, fiber orientations, and fiber volume fractions. Although braiding cannot achieve as high a fiber volume fraction as filament winding, braids can assume more complex shapes (sharper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...; and verification of materials and processing methods. The article discusses the determination of fiber, matrix, and void volume fractions and verification of ply lay-up and orientation. A review of composites processing parameters; fractography and surface analysis; and mechanical testing and stress analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... shapes can be cylindrical, conical, circular, oval, or any combination of these shapes. Fiber orientation can range from 0 to 90°. Disadvantages include size limitation and higher material costs. Part sizes range from 0.76 to 609 mm (0.030 to 24 in.) diameter and 7.3 m (24 ft) maximum length. Material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... provided their handling lives have not been exceeded. Fig. 5 Variation of fiber orientation with location on a compound-curved surface. Orientation will change if darts are cut and spliced to create gores. Flat patterns will also change. (Courtesy of Composite Design Technologies, Inc., Waltham...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... and the available raw materials. Reinforcements Once the fiber type has been selected, the next most important consideration is the ability to orient it in the desired direction to utilize its properties more advantageously. A common denominator for all materials used in pultrusion is that they must...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... RTM and SRIM 20–50 50–80 Fiber preforms Polyester, others Low pressure, tooling issue Compression molding (sheet molding compound) 20–50 50–80 Long, random Polyester, others Fiber orientation, surface finish issues Stamping 20–60 40–80 Random coiled, continuous aligned...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... equally across the spectrum, making it difficult to distinguish the individual components. Reflected-light bright-field illumination is used in most cases for viewing fiber-reinforced polymeric composites. When using bright-field illumination, it is essential that the specimen be oriented 90 degrees...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... determined by the structure of the reinforcing fibers. A two-dimensional, random fiber with largely even strength characteristics in x and y direction is most common. Changes toward one preferred direction, known as orientation, may occur during the flow process in the mold. In this respect, the design...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., aspect ratio, distribution, orientation, combination with fillers, and the quality of bonding with the matrix), and operating conditions. Fibers are far more wear resistant than the matrix and hence control the wear of composite. Continuous fiber-reinforced composites with a thermoset-polymer matrix...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-dimensional braided preforms. Fiber materials include graphite, glass, aramid, and others. The fiber configuration and material are major components when analyzing the mechanics of fiber-reinforced composites. Structural integrity requires the correct resin, fiber, orientation, and cure. Material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... (dark zones) present in (b) indicates stress damage to the material. Figure 12 shows a curved CFRP component. This sample is more difficult to image than the tensile-test bars because it has a complex shape; in addition, it has fibers oriented in a variety of different directions...