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fiber break

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Abstract Knowledge of fatigue behavior at the laminate level is essential for understanding the fatigue life of a laminated composite structure. This article describes fatigue failure of composite laminates in terms of layer cracking, delamination, and fiber break and interface debonding...
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Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 1304 Fracture surface of a longitudinal (0°) carbon/epoxy specimen failed in tension. The specimen was tested in the dry condition (see below for explanation) at 25 °C (77 °F). The fibers are broken at many different levels; the fiber breaks are perpendicular to the fiber (and load More
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Published: 01 January 1987
the fiber break and progressed to adjacent areas. This is an unusual fracture morphology in that fractured fibers rarely produce such a flat failure. SEM (same conditions as in Fig. 1294 ), 2000× (The composite specimens shown in Fig. 1296 , 1297 , 1298 , 1299 , 1300 , 1301 , 1302 , 1303 , 1304 More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 17 Examples of SEM studies on materials microstructures. (a) Fracture surface of a ceramic-fiber-strengthened aluminum-matrix composite. From the measured distribution of relative heights of fiber fractures and known strength distribution along the fibers, the fracture probability More
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Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 1297 Fracture surface of transverse (90°) carbon/epoxy specimen that failed in tension. The “room moisture” specimen was tested at 25 °C (77 °F) at a moisture content of 0.6 wt%. A few fiber breaks are shown in this fractograph. These are not common in transverse tensile failure surfaces More
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Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 1308 Fracture surface of a longitudinal (0°) carbon/epoxy specimen that failed in tension. Specimen was tested at 25 °C (77 °F) in the dry condition. This fractograph shows typical tensile failure of the epoxy resin in a local resin-rich region. This results when fibers break and produce More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of transverse (90°) carbon/epoxy specimen that failed in tension. The “room moisture” specimen was tested at 25 °C (77 °F) at a moisture content of 0.6 wt%. A few fiber breaks are shown in this fractograph. These are not common in transverse tensile failure surfaces (unless the fibers are somewhat misoriented...
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Published: 01 November 1995
Fig. 8 Fibrillar structure of Kevlar aramid fibers. (a) Loop break. (b) Tensile failure More
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Published: 01 January 2001
Fig. 4 Fibrillar structure of Kevlar aramid fibers. (a) Loop break. (b) Tensile failure More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002416
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... compressive strength. In very thick laminates, low-velocity impacts cause mostly fiber damage and very little delamination-type damage ( Ref 11 ). Fiber breaks in the seventh layer of a 36 mm thick filament-wound motor case made of AS4/HBRF-55A are shown in Fig. 15 . (Fibers were damaged only in layers 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., and thereby it is protected from immediate failure. On the other hand, when the bond strength is high , the load from the broken fiber is transferred mainly to the nearest fiber, causing it to break (local load sharing). This type of localized fracture sequence leads to premature failure of the composite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
.... It provides information on the specimen preparation, instrumentation, and procedures for various mechanical test methods of fiber-reinforced composites. These include the compression test, flexure test, shear test, open hole tension test, and compression after impact test. The article describes three distinct...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... produced by gouging or a low-speed impact that creates matrix cracks, fiber breaks, and delaminations in one of the skins. Type A damage can also include disbonding of one skin from the core. Type B involves damage to one skin and the core, where the core may be crushed or cracked. Type C is damage to both...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-matrix composites Trade name Generic name Manufacturer Composition Ref Density Elastic modulus Tensile strength Specific modulus Specific strength Break elongation Coefficient of thermal expansion Fiber diameter Ultimate-use temperature Estimated unit cost (a) g/cm 3 lb/in. 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003382
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., that is, they occur at many unpredictable locations throughout the laminate. There are five major damage mechanisms: matrix cracking, fiber breaking, crack coupling, delamination initiation, and delamination growth. Figure 1 illustrates the damage state versus percent of life for the three phases of damage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... that are separated from the matrix. Excessive stress, for example, would cause such a separation. As an example of this, Fig. 10 shows two nominally identical tensile-test bars made of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP). One of the bars has been stressed to a level that produced a 1.5% strain. The other sample...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0009219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... displacement case, and general load case solution. Factors affecting the composite materials properties and allowables of fiber-reinforced polymers are reviewed. The article discusses the process considerations for mold design, such as master model, metal tooling, composite tooling, and tool care. It explains...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... this is interesting, but such testing has not allowed prediction of composite performance. Testing the single tow or bundle allows an evaluation of the reinforcing fiber in its simplest form and is valuable in across-the-band variability studies. Because many fibers are woven into fabrics for use in composites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... surface is so resilient that it is very difficult to abrade sufficiently without breaking too many surface fibers in the process of creating the roughened bond surface. The best bonds made with layers of thermoset adhesives between thermoplastic adherends seem to have a strength of only about 80...