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feedback process control

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract The heat treatment of steel involves a number of processes (such as stress relieving, normalizing, annealing etc) to condition the microstructure and obtain desired properties. This article discusses typical heat treating process control procedures for carbon and low-alloy steels, as...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., yet still not as good as using common sense, good instrumentation for the parts being processed, an excellent closed-loop feedback control system, and an understanding of the cure kinetics of the system. Because some part configurations do not allow the use of trim tabs, other techniques are needed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... controllers and PLCs that can perform checks to help ensure the proper functioning of the instruments. Monitoring of the off state and comparison with other instruments also can provide feedback on the condition of a sensor. Any malfunction of motion or position in the system should trigger appropriate alarms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... linear response over its full range; that is, a change in the final element should produce a corresponding change in temperature. The sizing of the valves, power regulators, and heaters should match the process requirements to optimize control performance. The final element may provide feedback devices...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... principles in measuring gas flow. All feedback of the flow to a controlling device will allow for an adjustment to the flow by varying the opening of the orifice. To control the amount of gases used, systems are set up to alter the atmosphere by adjusting the amount of process gas used in the application...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005346
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... control” ( Ref 7 ). Applying statistical control charts to monitor a process allows feedback from the output of the process to the inputs so that adjustments can be made to improve the process. Control charts allow the distinction between common and special cause variation through the insertion of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Abstract This article defines quality, quality assurance, quality control, and quality management of processes, products, and services. It describes the evolution of quality control and quality assurance in the coatings industry. The article also discusses the standards, quality programs, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., and quality control applications. This article presents a variety of machine vision functions for different purposes and provides a comparison of machine and human vision capabilities in a table. It discusses the processes of a machine vision system: image acquisition, image preprocessing, image...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... rotary actuator. Specially designed transducers are necessary to measure the twist of the motor shaft and specimen. As mentioned previously, a rotation transducer is a component of the feedback circuitry required to control the hydraulic motor. These transducers are of three types: optical...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... case of computer failure. The cure cycle is controlled by feedback from thermocouples, transducers, and advanced dielectric and ultrasonic sensors. After complete cure control cycles are entered into the computer, control becomes automatic once the parts are loaded and the proper cure number is...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... temperatures and viscosities that make it extremely difficult to form them with conventional techniques. Products made via chemical vapor deposition and sol-gel processes can be made with much lower contaminant levels and/or better controlled dopant levels. Glass and glass-ceramic products are for the most...
Book Chapter

By S.L. Rohde
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... compound formation is limited to the deposited material. Although simple in concept, careful process control is necessary to avoid contamination of the target or deposition of substoichiometric films. Control of the reactive gas species is often costly, requiring at a minimum an automated feedback control...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.9781627082907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... is used by highly sophisticated control systems in conjunction with mathematical models to control the operation of rolling mills. In slower mills, such as blooming, billet, and slab mills, the operator often acts as the controller, adjusting the mill operation based on feedback from instrumentation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and conditions for a specific piece of plant, these modeling methods can lead to accurate interpolations and, linked to feedback control systems, they provide valuable quality-control models. Their merit is that they can be developed before the complex interactions between process variables and...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005355
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... through the oxygen orifice. An infrared sensing measurement is made to the computer controlling the robot. If the signal indicates kindling temperature, oxygen is employed, and the cut is continued. Blast cleaning of castings is a process in which abrasive particles, usually steel shot or grit, are...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... For precision forging, presses can be equipped with a hydraulic control circuit that produces a rapid advance stroke, followed by preselected first and second pressing speeds. Many other process variables can be controlled including pullout speed, force, dwell times, and ejection. Hydraulic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... pure condensation onto a substrate, whereas CVD refers to processes producing coatings from chemical reactions ( Ref 1 ). Several processes derived from PVD involve chemical reactions as well; they are sometimes referred to as hybrid vapor-phase processes. Obtaining uniform coatings with controlled...
Book Chapter

By Justin Heimsch
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... changes in the penetration depth of the electromagnetic field induced by the coils of the billet heater; the inductive feedback circuits measure this change, allowing for continuous measurement and control of the power input into the billet. The billet acoustical signature undergoes a similar distinct...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... true strain rate requires monitoring the instantaneous cross section of the deforming region with closed-loop control feedback to increase the crosshead velocity as the area decreases ( Ref 13 ). The strain-rate dependence of flow stress at constant strain and temperature is given by: (Eq 26) σ...