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fault equivalence

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... how proper planning, along with functional, interface, and detailed fault analyses, makes FMEA a process that facilitates the design throughout the product development cycle. It also discusses the use of fault equivalence to reduce the amount of labor required by the analysis. The article shows how...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003722
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... groups, and equivalent positions. The article presents a table of assorted structure types of metallurgical interest arranged according to the Pearson symbol. It also schematically illustrates atom positions, prototypes, structure symbols, space-group notations, and lattice parameters for some...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004110
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... after coating removal: ECDA validation may also be performed using historical data from prior excavations on the same pipeline. Prior excavation locations must be assessed to determine that they are equivalent to the ECDA region being considered and such a comparison is valid. If validity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... systems, and they may be produced by grain growth or when a partial dislocation moves through a lattice. A full dislocation produces a displacement equivalent to the distance between the lattice points, while a partial dislocation produces a movement that is less than a full distance. If stacking faults...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... with more than 2% C ( Ref 6 , 7 ). Their size is supposed to be in the range of 1 to 20 nm, and it increases with the carbon equivalent, lower silicon content, and lower holding time and temperature. According to Ref 2 , these carbon clusters contain approximately 15 atoms (C 15 ) with a stability time...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... of the expended mechanical energy being stored within the specimen. Grains are deformed and move relative to one another. The effects of the stored energy are present as point defects, dislocations, and stacking faults. Dislocations—flaws in the linear array of atoms—are generated and become rearranged due...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... in case of turn-to-turn faults as a result of metal fins If molten metal contacts the cooling water, there exists a risk of a steam explosion. Under standard conditions, one liter of water will be transformed into 1244 liters of steam. At 1500 °C (2730 °F) and under isobaric conditions, one liter...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002355
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
.... Push-pull symmetrical loading ( R = −1) with low stress amplitudes. Number of cycles to fracture, N f = 1.2 × 10 6 cycles Fig. 5 Summary of near-surface dislocation structures as a function of amplitude (expressed here through number of cyles to fracture, N f ) and stacking-fault...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... number of stacking faults makes it easier for grains to slip (i.e., facilitates shear displacement of one part of the grain with respect to another). The material then has a greater tendency to creep rather than crack to relieve tensile stresses. In some materials, decreasing the free energy stored...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... of time. Reliability engineering deals with the estimation and prevention of faults and failures of technical items, defined as ( Ref 29 ): A fault is the condition of an item that occurs when one of its components or assemblies degrades or exhibits abnormal behavior. A failure is the termination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... to a moderate level and deformation and extrusion with a high level of deformation ( Ref 3 ). Stacking-fault energy, as mentioned in Fig. 5 as being high or low, relates to the dislocation structure of the crystal. Low stacking-fault energy results in wide stacking faults that have a relatively high...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... is typical. Hugoniot data for a wide range of materials can be found tabulated in Ref 79 . The total equivalent or effective transient strain induced in the sample due to this impact (encompassed as a sum of both the elastic and plastic compression and elastic and plastic release portions of the shock...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... equivalent to welds made in the absence of hydrogen and, of course, cracks. However, tensile ductility can be reduced because HIC can occur while the tensile test is in progress, which reduces the cross-sectional area of the test specimens. The resulting defects in the fractured surfaces are called “fisheyes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003743
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... portion of the expended mechanical energy being stored within the specimen. Grains are deformed and move relative to one another. The effects of the stored energy (visually observed only, using thin-foil transmission electron microscopy) are present as point defects, dislocations, and stacking faults...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... tabulates the assorted structure types of metallurgical interest arranged according to Pearson symbol. It also provides information on crystal defects, explaining some significant ones, such as point defects, line defects, stacking faults, and twins. atom position crystal defects crystal structure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003742
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... stainless steel revealed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) following a moderate deformation, equivalent von Mises strain (ε vM ) ≈ 0.2 to 0.3, in a hammer forging, with a displacement rate 24–30 m/s and starting temperature of 1144 K. (c) Histograms showing the distribution of misorientation angles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... a metal is cold worked by plastic deformation, a small portion of the mechanical energy expended in deforming the metal is stored in the specimen. This stored energy resides in the crystals as point defects (vacancies and interstitials), dislocations, and stacking faults in various forms and combinations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Table 1 Risk assessment matrix Based on a selected current density of 0.001 A/ft 2 for an acceptable corrosion rate of the pipe. See text for details. Design separation pipe-to-rail, ft Maximum allowable stray current, mA Equivalent short resistance, Ω Risk Long pipe, limited...