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fail-passive designs

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... hazard analysis in terms of failure modes and effects analysis, failure modes and criticality analysis, fault tree analysis, fault hazard analysis, and operating hazards analysis. The article examines fail-safe designs, such as fail-passive designs, fail-active designs, and fail-operational designs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., it takes much longer and is therefore more expensive to perform a witnessed investigation compared with a nonwitnessed investigation. History of the Failed Components Obtaining a complete background history of the component of concern is of crucial importance. The background information is critical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., dissolved oxygen in water, or other oxidizing media. When this protective film is violated or fails to form, active corrosion is likely to occur. Some fabrication processes can impede the reformation of the passive layer, and, to ensure that it is formed, stainless steels are subjected to passivation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of corrosion failure site in failed coil Fig. 11 Detail view of corrosion failure site in failed coil Although this article deals primarily with passive devices, there are some exceptions to the division between nonsemiconductor devices and semiconductor devices. An example of a fringe-area...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... corrosion. Poor designs can cause materials highly resistant to uniform corrosion attack to fail catastrophically to local attack. Conditions that may cause an acceleration of corrosion include stagnation and rapid fluid flow. Designs that minimize the possibility of crevice corrosion, erosion-corrosion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... Fig. 1 Copper migration and copper corrosion by-products on surface of failed printed circuit board. See the article “Corrosion in Passive Electrical Components” in this Volume. Fig. 2 Tin dendrites growing between two adjacent solder joints on failed printed circuit board. See...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
.... The article explains the specific forms of corrosion, including general corrosion, localized attack, and environmentally assisted cracking. It provides a discussion on the engineering aspects of design that can, without due care and attention, precipitate unexpected premature failure. The article reviews ways...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... above body temperature, leading to what can be a serious device malfunction. This is one reason why designers are encouraged to measure A f using a shape recovery test that emulates the actual device deformation, rather than a DSC test that fails to take strain into account. Fig. 13 A Ti-50.8Ni...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... failed by corrosion because of the stray currents. If the pipeline had been cathodically protected, stray-current attack could have caused the buried tank to fail. The stray-current problem shown in Fig. 1(a) was corrected by electrically connecting the tank and the pipeline by an insulated buss...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... will not fail by pitting or SCC due to chloride contamination. Aeration can be an important factor in corrosion, particularly in cases of borderline passivity. If dissimilar-metal contact or stray currents occur, the possibility of galvanic attack or hydrogen embrittlement must be considered. Alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... in the stainless steel is required to prevent corrosion. With appropriate grade selection, stainless steel will perform for very long times with minimal corrosion, but an inadequate grade can corrode and perforate more rapidly than a plain carbon steel will fail by uniform corrosion. Selection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... in a given service, yet a seemingly identical pipeline may fail within weeks or months in the same service at another plant. A major piece of equipment may suddenly fail after 15 or 20 years of service as a result of less than 1 ppm of metal ion contamination in a new source of raw material. In designing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... forms) within the body. Such effects will undermine the biocompatibility of an implant material and are the design limits that restrict the selection of metals for in vivo use more often than mechanical property concerns. Corrosion fatigue and SCC are important exceptions to this situation. Here...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...) In this predictive model, a small number of containers are assumed to be defective and to fail within 50 years of emplacement. Each modeling parameter is assigned a range of values, resulting in a distribution of corrosion rates and failure times. The crevice corrosion rate is assumed to be solely dependent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... platforms were required and again the T73 heat treatment was specified. The new platforms with this heat treatment failed after 2 years of service. Figure 6 shows the failed firing platform. Figure 7 is a close-up of the exfoliation corrosion on the firing platform. The T73 temper was designated because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... this, the overall divergence from the crystalline order must be somewhat limited; otherwise the material would fail easily along the grain boundaries under tension. As at other surfaces, the free energy at grain boundaries is higher than that of the crystals themselves but not as high as at free surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of failed polymer-matrix composites can provide a significant amount of information regarding failure cause. In particular, examination of a composite fracture can be useful in determining the crack initiation site, crack growth direction, fracture sequence, and failure mode. Crack Initiation, Growth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... ) removed from a patient due to persistent pain were found to have failed due to crevice corrosion between the plate and bone. The composition of the plate was similar to that of Stellite 25 (Co-20Cr-15W-10Ni), although only 12.8% tungsten was detected in the alloy, while the screws were similar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004208
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., complexed, or solid forms) within the body. Such effects will undermine the biocompatibility of an implant material and are the design limits that restrict the selection of metals for in vivo use more often than mechanical property concerns. Corrosion fatigue and SCC are important exceptions...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) Greater magnification (∼63×) in this same area shows the multiple pits and associated corrosion products at the failure origin. The beach marks are seen emanating from the pits, typical of fatigue failure mode. Source: Ref 6 Conclusion The seal had failed allowing moisture into the cavity...