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fail-passive designs

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... because, in some cases, A f may be increased above body temperature, leading to what can be a serious device malfunction. This is one reason why designers are encouraged to measure A f using a shape recovery test that emulates the actual device deformation, rather than a DSC test that fails to take...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., but an inadequate grade can corrode and perforate more rapidly than a plain carbon steel will fail by uniform corrosion. Selection of the appropriate grade of stainless steel is then a balancing of the desire to minimize cost and the risk of corrosion damage by excursions of environmental conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... air bubbles in the surface of formed concrete. Honeycomb in formed surfaces occurs when mortar fails to fill all the spaces between coarse aggregate particles in concrete. Congested reinforcement, segregation, and insufficient fine aggregate content can contribute to the problem. Higher concrete...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... type of hydrogen damage. Carbon and low-alloy steels can fail by several types of hydrogen damage. Failure by hydrogen embrittlement is often encountered with high-strength steels, especially when the tensile strength is above 1034 MPa (150 ksi). Low-strength steels are considered resistant to hydrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... failed coatings will reach the containment sumps and screens and affect the performance of SR, post-LOCA cooling systems. Some of these design changes are encompassed in the following strategies: Coatings are not used in the immediate vicinity of the containment recirculation screens to minimize the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... nickel alloys suffer environmentally assisted cracking are highly specific and therefore avoidable by proper design of the industrial components. corrosion corrosive environments environmentally assisted cracking high-temperature corrosion industrial applications nickel alloys NICKEL...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article reviews the corrosion behavior of intermetallics for the modeling of the corrosion processes and for devising a strategy to create corrosion protective systems through alloy and coating design. It discusses the high-temperature corrosion properties of intermetallics and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Table 4 for alloy compositions. (c) P, pass; X, fail based on the following criteria: A 262A ditching <10%=pass; A 262B, penetration rate<0.64 mm/yr (25 mils/yr)=pass; A 262C, penetration rate<0.46 mm/yr (18 mils/yr) and not increasing=pass; EPR, peak current density<100 μA/cm 2 (645...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... neglected, but critical, factor in joint design is the cohesive strength of the substrate. A substrate that does not have sufficient strength to support the stresses that develop at the sealant-substrate interface will fail internally. This situation occurs most often with composite materials, such as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... fluctuations. This article begins with an overview of fatigue properties and design life. This is followed by a description of the two approaches to fatigue, namely infinite-life criterion and finite-life criterion, along with information on damage tolerance criterion. The article then discusses the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... control, equipment, surface preparation, and crack patterns and other characteristics of hard chromium plating. It offers recommendations for the design and use of plating racks, describes the problems encountered in hard chromium plating, and their corrective procedures. The article provides information...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... to failed regulatory compliance. The context of FDA regulation is worth mentioning, specifically because it was the unanticipated consequences of new technology—and the way the technology was brought to market—that spurred the medical device regulatory framework as we have it today (2011) ( Ref 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... ultimate failure mode when selecting materials, because this will guide the selection process. For example, tools that routinely fail by abrasion or galling need enhanced wear resistance, whereas tools that fail by chipping or fracture need additional toughness. More information about tool steels can be...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Selection of appropriate grades of steel will enable the steel to perform for very long times with minimal corrosion, but an inadequate grade can corrode and perforate more rapidly than a plain carbon steel will fail by uniform corrosion. This article describes the effect of chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... or the solution is being completely replaced, and sampling the solution without replacement fails to account for the adsorbed ions. Ions of metals that form hydroxides with a very low solubility product constant, such as chromium or titanium, hydrolyze easily, forming solid products that may escape...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... confidently for that service environment. Design changes involving components, processes, or systems can be necessary to alleviate corrosion. Poor designs can cause materials highly resistant to uniform attack to fail catastrophically due to local attack. Conditions that can cause an acceleration of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... critical current density. In addition, the actual wetted surface area is needed for an accurate determination of the corrosion rate. Unfortunately, much of the P/M electrochemical corrosion literature fails to measure and/or report actual surface areas. As a result, care must be taken when basing judgments...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... drops, corresponding to failure of the passive film under the scratching load. The passive film on the yttrium-free sample fails under a smaller critical load (approximately 5.5 g). Source: Ref 55 Microstructural inhomogeneity (e.g., presence of second phases, interphase boundaries, and grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... levels of metal ions and corrosion products around prostheses that failed due to loosening attribute the loosening to the metal ion levels and corrosion product in tissues immediately surrounding the prostheses. These studies were conducted before the wear of polyethylene was identified as the principal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... phenomena are discussed in this section. Fatigue failures have been studied by materials scientists for many decades. In a macroscopic sense, even a normally ductile material fails in a manner that is basically brittle under the action of fatigue loading. Fatigue failures involve repeated dynamic cyclic...