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fail-operational designs

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... under both normal (black arrows) and emergency conditions (white arrows). Standby emergency pump is activated if the primary pump fails. In addition, with channel furnaces, standby generators are often employed to maintain cooling to the inductor. The selection of lining material is determined...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... determined based on historical records. For example, records for a particular tool indicate that it frequently requires repair for a broken core. Further investigation reveals that the core always fails before the typical production run of 10,000 cycles. To minimize repair time: Spare cores must be kept...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003088
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... statistical variability and uncertainty that influence the adequacy of a design. Fundamentally, designing to prevent service failures is a statistical problem. In simplistic terms, an engineered component fails when the resistance to failure is less than the imposed service condition. Depending on the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... operations in design. The article describes the factors that control casting tolerances and provides specific tips for designing castings with uniform wall thickness and unequal sections, designing thin sections, designing for economical coring, designing for functional packaging, and core design principles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003972
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... critical activity in production of tooling; if the design fails to produce the article correctly (due to fractures, incorrect dimensions, or tolerances), then modifications are required and the tool manufacturing process starts over. Computer-aided design tools are increasingly being used to improve the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.9781627081948
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of the approved castings failed: the ribs, under tension, separated from the casting, and the hub was completely torn off the flange or disk section. The residual stresses introduced by the differential in freezing time had weakened these junctions enough to cause malfunction of the part. Fig. 4...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the foam pattern and the sand during casting. The thin ceramic shell allows the foam decomposition materials to escape through it and into the sand at the proper rate. If it is too impermeable for the foam decomposition s to pass through it, the molten metal could freeze off and the part would fail to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... agitators. In this work, the power requirements for marine-type impellers were illustrated. However, improvements in impeller design have enabled 40% greater flow efficiency, with modern airfoil-type impellers operating at lower speeds. The recommended power requirements for impeller agitation are shown...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... usually fail from tensile stresses. His methodology has been used extensively in the design of ceramic components for engines ( Ref 5 , 6 , 7 ) and has been shown to work quite well for a number of applications. In testing and evaluation of ceramics in actual operating environments, it has been...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... Fig. 14 An aluminum sand casting (alloy 356) with a minimum wall thickness for its shape. Heavier ribs assisted in providing adequate metal flow and kept rejections at an acceptable low level. In thin-walled castings of certain designs, the light weight of aluminum fails to provide sufficient...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract The most widely accepted alloy and temper designation system for aluminum and its alloys is maintained by the Aluminum Association and recognized by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as the American National Standard Alloy and Temper Designation Systems for Aluminum...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-digit H temper designations have already been assigned for wrought products in all alloys: H x 11 applies to products that incur sufficient strain hardening after final annealing to fail to qualify as 0 temper, but not so much or so consistent an amount of strain hardening to qualify as H x 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...-deformed billet material is twice as important as increasing the die life. But how are the right values for w die and w billet chosen? If the selected values for w die and w billet fail to represent the real design requirements, material cost, labor cost, supply chain constraints, or myriad...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... Like most ceramic materials, glass-ceramics are generally brittle and fail with lower stress in tension than in compressive loading ( Table 22 ). Performance in service is affected by both a size effect ( Ref 26 ) and stress loading rate, the latter not generally noted in brittle materials ( Ref 27...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... progressed by low-cycle fatigue. Nonmetallic inclusions were detected in the area of crack initiation, and evidence of stress corrosion was provided by electron micrographs. Fig. 8 (a) Failed steel landing gear cylinder and (b) aluminum alloy landing gear cylinder of composite design. Both were forged...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... undesirable product failure mode. An understanding of how a part, assembly, or entire structure can fail and the ramifications of that failure are essential in providing a safe and reliable design. The growing environmental and regulatory demand to consider the entire life cycle of a product could require...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... article provides a general view on the applicability of finite-element modeling in conducting analyses of failed components. It highlights the uses of finite-element modeling in the area of failure analysis and design, with emphasis on structural analysis. The discussion covers the general development and...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... final fracture. Most failures in new designs are due to inadequate design, not poor-quality part production. Most field failures are due to product misuse and not poor-quality component manufacture. When a part is subjected to unsurvivable loads, it will fail through the most heavily loaded section, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... failed coatings will reach the containment sumps and screens and affect the performance of SR, post-LOCA cooling systems. Some of these design changes are encompassed in the following strategies: Coatings are not used in the immediate vicinity of the containment recirculation screens to minimize the...