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Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the different classes of gears, namely, spur, helical, herringbone, crossed-axes helical, worm, internal, rack, bevel, or face-type. It describes the methods used to cut the teeth of gears other than bevel gears: milling, broaching, shear cutting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... forming improves fatigue and wear resistance. Powder forging (press, sinter, forge, heat treat) 7.6–7.8+ Limited to spur, bevel, and face gears although trials with helical gears have been done ( Ref 2 ) Powder injection molding 7.8+ … Copper infiltrated steel Near full density Copper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002375
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... spur gear. The heavy line on a tooth face of each gear section represents the instantaneous line of contact for that section. This offset-contact pattern is typical for helical, spiral bevel, and hypoid gears. Lines on tooth faces are lines of contract. Fig. 1 Tooth contact lines on a spur...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005869
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
.... , and Krause C. , Inductive Surface Hardening to the Highest Standards of Precision and Reproducibility , Heat Process. , Vulkan Verlag , Jan 2012 , p 59 – 63 7. Handschuh R.F. , Lewicki D.G. , Heath G.F. , and Bossier R.B. Jr. , “Experimental Evaluation of Face Gears...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... dissipated from the oil is equal to the heat extracted by the oil). Damage to and failures of gears can and do occur as a direct or indirect result of lubrication problems. Spur and Bevel Gears Spur-gear teeth are cut straight across the face of the gear blank, and the mating teeth theoretically meet...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of the gear found other teeth with cracks similar to those in Fig. 41 . Fig. 41 Another tooth from the same gear with subcase fractures that have reached the active face A 750 kW (1000 hp) hydroelectric plant was shut down by the automatic monitoring systems several months after...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
.... To avoid this condition, one or both test gears can be crowned to keep the load at the center of the face width. In this condition, the load-distribution factor is taken as unity for bending stress, and a suitable factor is estimated as shown in the following section for contact stress. However, crowning...
Book Chapter

By Pel Lynah
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... steel, bronze, cast iron, stainless steel, aluminum, magnesium, brass, quartz, ceramics, plastics, and glass can be lapped on the same lap plate. Fig. 14 A 355 mm (14 in.) planetary fixed-plate dual-face lapping machine. The top plate has been removed to expose the center drive gear, ring...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005867
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... 6.5 1.0 10 400 E 7 23 0.9 5.8 0.9 9 360 F 8 19 0.75 4.8 0.75 7.5 300 (a) For a face width of 25 mm (1 in.). (b) At a power density of 1.55 kW/cm 2 (10 kW/in. 2 ). (c) For a gear having 40 teeth. Source: Ref 20 Comparison of carburized 8620 gears...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.9781627081672
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... with filtered service lubricant Optimize gear geometry by: Using at least 20 teeth in the pinion for parallel-axis gears Using a non-hunting gear ratio Using helical gears with axial contact ratio mF ≥2.0 Using aspect ratio (face width to diameter ratio), ma, ≤1.0 for spur and single...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... is not generally a function of the relative sliding velocity along a tooth face; however, at very high speeds, scoring can occur, and the friction losses in gear sets are strongly affected by sliding velocity. Hypoid gears, worm gears, and spiroid gears can run relatively well even when appreciably worn...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
...-rod balls and sockets Speedometer gears Shackle bolts Shifter forks Tie-rod ball studs and ball-stud sockets Finished before treatment except for possible polishing operation High degree of wear resistance Clean surface after treatment Transmission gears Transmission main shafts and synchronizer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...) After round rolling stand. Source: Ref 26 Fig. 23 Macrostructure of the bar cross section (a) on the face of a forged disk and (b) sampling. Source: Ref 27 Fig. 24 Characteristic of fiber flow pattern of gear blanks described by (a) the distance y α and (b) its dependence...
Book Chapter

By Volker Heuer
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
.... With the optimized reversing gas-flow process, it is not necessary to machine the teeth of these final-drive pinion gears after heat treatment. Only the bores and faces of the gear are machined after heat treatment. This example shows the significant potential to reduce distortion with reversing gas flow. When...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... of ring gear teeth Workpiece Bevel ring gear made of 8742 steel with 90 teeth. Diametral pitch, 1.5; face width, 200 mm (8 in.); outside diameter, 1.53 m (60.412 in.) Mounting Gear mounted on holding fixture to within 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) total indicator runout Flame heads Two 10...
Book Chapter

By Robert Bolin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Additionally, the pinpoint of the laser can measure any surface across the ring face, yielding a more accurate measurement, especially on contour rings where the ring face can be complex. In older machines, a pair of hydraulic centering arms ( Fig. 8a ), connected through gear segments, contact the ring OD...
Book Chapter

Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002134
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... large flat surfaces, such as the machined faces of automotive engine blocks. Insert broaches are also used on a wide variety of form broaching operations, such as plier halves or steering gear racks. Large flat areas are only a portion of insert-type broach forms. Dovetail forms, T-slots, and various...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005847
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... on the pitch diameter is 25 kW/in. 2 ; therefore, the maximum size of gears for heating statically is approximately 20.3 to 30.4 cm (8 to 12 in.) in diameter with face widths of 2.5 to 2.8 cm (1 to 1.5 in.). A second alternative, with larger gears, is to apply an encircling coil and scan harden the gear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... Lubricant film shape in the direction of rolling Fig. 11 Typical image of a cross-hatched honed specimen surface using white light interferometry Fig. 13 Parabolic ring contact face profile Fig. 14 Circular bore journal bearing. LOC, line of center Fig. 15 Sommerfeld...