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fabrication flaws

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... by the objectives of a failure analysis. Then, the article discusses the processes involved in failure analysis, including codes and standards. Next, fabrication flaws that can develop into failures of in-service pressure vessels and piping are covered. This is followed by sections discussing in-service mechanical...
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
, and the pressure test was insufficient to detect the flaw at this time. The bolt compromised the pressure vessel integrity, and had it gone undetected it would have been an ideal site for further crevice corrosion. Control: Careful fabrication and diligent in-process inspection for that which “cannot happen”! More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... No. 2 could demonstrate this capability. That is, to demonstrate 90/95 crack size, the specimens fabricated for the demonstration program must have cracks less than a NDE and some larger. If it is assumed that all the flaws were detected in both cases, the 90/95 crack sizes predicted are: Case...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article reviews nondestructive testing (NDT) and inspection techniques, namely liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, ultrasonics, X-ray, eddy current, visual and radiography that are commonly used to detect and evaluate flaws or leaks in an engineering system. This article compares...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... All magnetic flaw-detection methods rely in some way on the detection and measurement of the magnetic flux leakage field near the surface of the material, which is caused by the presence of the flaw. Material properties characterization methods rely on bulk measurements of the hysteretic properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... radiography (which looked much like Fig. 19 ), and acoustic emission using a heat source. Fig. 19 Positive print from x-ray radiograph showing interface corrosion of an adhesive-bonded aluminum laminate Poor Fabrication (Flaws or Weak Bonds) In-service failures can occur from weak bonds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... and composites Liquid penetrant PT Liquid penetrant fluid preferentially collects in crevices and attracts dyes that accentuate flaw visibility. Locating fabrication discontinuities, stress cracks Will not find subsurface defects Ease of application. Improvement over simple visual inspection Most metals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
..., that is, combinations that will not give rise to subsequent crack growth in service. This concept also can be applied in design to ensure that original fabrication flaws will not extend in service. Unfortunately, K Iscc depends on both material and operating conditions and appropriate values can be difficult...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... be so sensitive that minor discontinuities would appear to be major flaws. Thermal treatment can also have an appreciable effect on the ultrasonic transmissibility of steel. For this reason, the stage in the fabrication process at which the ultrasonic inspection is performed may be important. In some...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... and simulation to be employed for optimization and prediction of eddy-current technique performance ( Ref 21 ). The computer models allow fast and comprehensive eddy-current procedure development with significantly reduced costs for specimens and representative flaws fabrication. An example of array eddy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... for specimens and representative flaws fabrication. Fig. 12 Example of array eddy current examination for a friction stir weld in an aluminum plate. (a) Photo showing friction stir weld in an aluminum specimen with locations of flaws. (b) Test results at 20 kHz. (c) Test results at 480 kHz...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002384
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... of today's fabricated components and structures are welded, and invariably the weld joint is the most critical area from the performance perspective. An examination of structural and component failures documented in open literature over the past 50 years or so clearly indicates that failures predominantly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006467
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., as in a fabricating shop. Specific advantages are: Liquid penetrant inspection is extremely sensitive and can sometimes detect surface flaws missed by other methods. The solvent-removable system (one of the several liquid penetrant systems) in particular is extremely flexible and can be used for inspecting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., because at the completion of every test, an accept/reject decision must be made regarding the suitability of the component for future service. This has led to some important semantic issues, and the words defect, flaw, discontinuity , and imperfection have distinct meanings in the NDE literature. Again...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... with an example that illustrates the integration of an ultrasonic reliability model with a CAD system. non-destructive evaluation process control reliability ultrasonic inspection model eddy current inspection model radiographic inspection model ultrasonic reliability model CAD system flaw detection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., it covers the use of transmission pipeline in North America, discusses the procedures in pipeline failure analysis investigation, and provides a brief background on the most commonly observed pipeline flaws and degradation mechanisms. A case study related to hydrogen cracking and a hard spot is also...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in the part. The flow of eddy currents in the part depends on the electrical characteristics of the part, the presence or absence of flaws and other discontinuities in the part, and the total electromagnetic field within the part. The change in flow of eddy currents caused by the presence of a crack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
..., and stated: Clearly, it must be recognized that fabricated structures and, indeed, even the raw materials contain defects and flaws of various kinds. The lives of these structures are controlled by the flaw sizes required to cause fracture at the operating stress levels, the initial flaw size...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
..., for example, if the signal amplitude exceeds the DAC set-off 3 mm (0.12 in.) diameter holes, and the dB-drop length of the flaw exceeds the wall thickness of the weld, then the flaw is rejected as a defect. The accept/reject criteria are usually set by a fabrication or manufacturing standard. In the past...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... of material and fabrication are noted, together with those markings that may serve to identify the part. The fragments are then examined individually, and each is marked with the direction and speed of cracking, the surface at which the crack front leads (that is, the surface under greatest tension...