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external optical inspection

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Visual inspection (VI) is the oldest inspection technique man has used as a quality-control tool to evaluate products, assess their final form in terms of fabrication accuracy and external features based on experience, and decide on their acceptance or rejection. This article discusses...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... borescopes (rigid and flexible), optical sensors, and magnifying systems. The article discusses the special features of borescopes, the factors that influence the choice of a flexible or rigid borescope for use in a specific application, and some of the image sensors used in visual inspection. flexible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... with the joint centerline. Fracture at the origin was consistent with ductile overload, and no evidence of any progressive or in-service cracking was observed. The incomplete cross-weld penetration or porosity did not extend to the pipe outer surface; consequently, external inspection and leak detection would...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...; film provides record of inspection Radiation safety requires precautions; expensive; detection of cracks can be difficult unless perpendicular to x-ray film. Pipeline welds for penetration, inclusions, and voids; internal defects in castings Visual optical Surface characteristics such as finish...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Fig. 22 Magnetic particle inspection of Exemplar crankshaft fracture with ultraviolet (blacklight) illumination Microscopic Photography Optical stereomicroscopy, with magnifications typically from 3× to 75×, is possibly the most important tool in failure analysis since it permits detailed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
..., these surfaces are more difficult to describe mathematically. This impacts the number of points required from inspection to effectively characterize the surface for tolerance evaluation and component verification. This often means long cycle times for traditional inspection methods, which can make optical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., application can be challenging and in some cases impossible for many of the more complex AM components. These factors include complex part geometry (internal and external features), surface condition, spatial microstructure variability, and inspection modality with x-ray or ultrasound volumetric penetration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0007023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... in laser powder-bed fusion/directed-energy deposition. IR, infrared; CMM, coordinate measuring machine; GOM, 3D inspection software The table shows that the methods are predominantly based on infrared or high-speed camera and optical technologies with thermal systems monitoring temperature gradients...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
..., and discusses the application procedures for internal and external FBE pipe coating. The procedures involve pipe inspection, surface preparation, heating, powder application, curing, cooling, coating inspection, and repairing. It describes the problems and solutions for FBE external pipe coatings, girth weld...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
.... As commercial aircraft age in service, the structures experience many forms of corrosion, dependent on the alloy and temper, the finish, the assembly design and location on the airplane, the drainage, and the internal and external environments. Unattended, these may become serious airworthiness issues...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... revolution. Laser-ultrasonics is a particular implementation of ultrasonic nondestructive inspection in which ultrasound is generated and detected by lasers. The piezoelectric transducer widely used in the usual or conventional inspection by ultrasound is replaced by a laser and optical system. Because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001479
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... the curve that forms as this plane intersects the surface of a soldered joint. The system scans soldered joints by moving an x-y table back and forth under the laser assembly. The entire inspection system, including the laser optics and table, is attached to a granite block that floats on a bed of air...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of available techniques is reduced. For example, x-ray radiography is commonly carried out at the fabrication stage but is generally not a realistic inspection method in service, where gamma radiography is generally employed due to its portability and independence from an external power source...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-diffusivity materials (e.g., epoxy-matrix composites and polymers), the allowable duration of the excitation increases, and simpler sources (heat lamps, hot air guns) may be used for qualitative inspection applications. Optical Heating Light may be used for excitation in either a brief flash pulse...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... that are appropriate for the thickness, width, and material of the strip being inspected, Lamb waves are set up by the combined effect of the two ultrasonic beams. Focused Units Ultrasound can be focused by acoustic lenses in a manner similar to that in which light is focused by optic lenses. Most acoustic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Abstract This article describes the characterization of welds as a sequence of procedures, where each procedure is concerned with a finer scale of detail. The first level of characterization involves information that may be obtained by direct visual inspection and measurement of the weld...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with the overall inspection philosophy being used. Visual Examination and Optical Scanning There are several types of NDE methods for surface examination ( Table 1 ). Of course, visual examination is one of the most basic methods of surface inspection. Other common NDE methods for surface inspection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... Abstract Nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods for cast iron are used to ensure that the parts supplied perform as required by the purchaser. This article focuses on the principal nondestructive methods used to inspect for anomalies in cast irons and to determine if the volume, shape, size...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...) typically are based on measurement and analysis of the surface temperature response of a test piece to externally applied stimulation. Unlike thermal process monitoring or preventative maintenance operations, in which the absolute temperature of a part is measured under steady-state conditions, thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., radiography, X-ray computed tomography, thermography, low-frequency vibration methods, acoustic emission, eddy current testing, optical holography, and shearography. The article presents some examples are for fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites. Many of the techniques have general applicability...