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external magnetic fields

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... localized magnetic field near the slot. The additional magnetic field represented by the extra flux lines is the leakage field associated with the slot. In some ferromagnetic materials, the residual field (the field that remains after removal of an external magnetizing field) often is adequate for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... because an externally applied magnetic field removes the degeneracy of the nuclear spin energy ground state, splitting this into 2 I + 1 levels, where I represents the nuclear spin quantum number. This effect, termed the Zeeman effect, allows for measurement of transitions between nuclear energy states...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... detailed account of the portable power sources available for magnetization, and the different ways of generating magnetic fields using yokes, coils, central conductors, prod contacts, direct-contact, and induced current. In addition, the article discusses the characteristics and classification, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006468
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... on that surface. Sometimes these indications may even appear on the outside surface of the part. The flux density in the wall of the cylindrical part is the same whether the central conductor is of magnetic or nonmagnetic material, because it is the field external to the conductor that constitutes...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... disturbing influence, such as temperature or an external magnetic field, is considered reversible if the original properties of the magnet return when the disturbing influence is removed. Stability can have a significant influence on choice of magnet material, as well as on component shape and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Barkhausen noise occurs when magnetic domains are forced to reorient or resize, typically in the presence of an alternating external magnetic field. In ferromagnetic materials, the magnetization process is not continuous but is made up of a series of discrete changes in magnetization that appear to be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... shows the abrupt irreversible steps arising during the hysteretic magnetization cycle of a ferromagnetic material under an applied external field. Rather than a smooth transition, changes in magnetization occur over abrupt discontinuous intervals. These discontinuous jumps, which give rise to MBN, are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
.... Another alternative is to join the pipe with a weldless external compression fitting. Usually, the compression coupling is fitted on one end of each pipe joint in the applicator's yard. In the field, a two-part epoxy is spread over the external surface of the free end of the pipe. During the installation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... correlation length, Δ X = X β − X α is the miscibility gap, and δ X is the concentration supersaturation. The growth rate, d R /d t , for a nonconserved field ( Eq 35 ) reproduces a linear kinetic law under a constant external field, H , or a parabolic kinetic law for pure curvature-driven kinetics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Visual inspection (VI) is the oldest inspection technique man has used as a quality-control tool to evaluate products, assess their final form in terms of fabrication accuracy and external features based on experience, and decide on their acceptance or rejection. This article discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., metal systems have been extensively studied since their introduction ( Ref 1 ) for their unique structural, mechanical, electronic, magnetic, and corrosion properties ( Ref 2 , 3 ). These alloys can be produced by such techniques as liquid quenching, molecular deposition, or external action, and they...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...: use of lead screens; protection against backscatter and scatter from external objects; and use of masks, diaphragms, collimators, and filtration. The article concludes with a discussion on image conversion media, including recording media, lead screens, lead oxide screens, and fluorescent intensifying...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Abstract Maintenance coating is an important part of any meaningful asset-preservation strategy in facilities producing pulp and paper and other chemicals. This article discusses maintenance coating for carbon steel structures and process equipment exposed to normal external pulp and paper mill...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... of composition, processing, design, fabrication, and external treatments on the corrosion of stainless steels. Various forms of corrosion, namely, general, galvanic, pitting, crevice, intergranular, stress-corrosion cracking, erosion-corrosion, and oxidation, are reviewed. Corrosion testing for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... plates, cylinders, and flanges. The article discusses various control methods, including the use of lead screens; protection against backscatter and scatter from external objects; and the use of masks, diaphragms, collimators, and filtration. The radiographic appearance of specific types of flaws is also...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Ceramic materials serve important insulative, capacitive, conductive, resistive, sensor, electrooptic, and magnetic functions in a wide variety of electrical and electronic circuitry. This article focuses on various applications of advanced ceramics in both electric power and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... Complete discussions of electron-lattice interactions and how external electromagnetic fields generate elastic waves in metals, in one case even without an applied magnetic field, are widely available in the published literature cited at the beginning of this article. As mentioned at the beginning of the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... the rare-earth ions with an external magnetic field results in a rotation of the plane of polarization of polarized light passing through the material. Diamagnetic glasses can also exhibit the Faraday effect. In this case, the rotation of the light will be in the opposite sense from that of the so...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article reviews nondestructive testing (NDT) and inspection techniques, namely liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, ultrasonics, X-ray, eddy current, visual and radiography that are commonly used to detect and evaluate flaws or leaks in an engineering system. This article compares...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... nonferromagnetic materials, the secondary electromagnetic field is derived exclusively from eddy currents. However, with ferromagnetic materials, additional magnetic effects occur that are usually of sufficient magnitude to overshadow the field effects caused by the induced eddy currents. Although undesirable...