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extension springs

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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 21 Wahl correction factors for helical compression or extension springs. Spring index, C , is the mean diameter of the spring, D , divided by the diameter of the wire, d . When square wire, or rectangular wire coiled on the flat side, is used, the thickness of the wire, t More
Book Chapter

By Loren Godfrey
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
...: compression springs (including die springs), extension springs, torsion springs, and wire forms. Chemical composition, mechanical properties, surface quality, availability, and cost are the principal factors to be considered in selecting steel for springs. Both carbon and alloy steels are used extensively...
Book Chapter

By Mark Hayes
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... support the maximum applied stress, at which time overload failure will occur. Fatigue is a likely failure mechanism for all types of springs (compression, extension, torsion, leaf, presswork, spiral, constant force, disc, etc.) as well as for all spring sizes (fatigue occurs in springs made from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005138
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... to wire diameter) ranging from 3 to 18. The length of wire fed is controlled by the feed rolls. A coiler equipped with a variety of attachments and cams or servo motors can produce almost any type of spring, including tight-wound extension springs, common compression springs with either open ends...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... spring wire, should always be stress relieved to remove residual stresses produced in coiling. Extension springs are usually given a stress-relieving treatment to relieve stresses induced in forming hooks or other end configurations, but such treatment should allow retention of stresses induced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... springs, electronic connectors, and relay springs, and a number of extensive studies have been reported ( Ref 4 , 23 , 24 ). In these methods, the outer fiber strain during bending is held constant. The change in bending moment during relaxation is determined either by monitoring the applied force...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... extensive grain flow from cold working in the brinelled areas. The general microstructure was fine-grained, tempered martensite of good quality. There was no surface decarburization. Chemical analysis identified the spring material as 6150 steel. The hardness of the material was 49.5 to 51 HRC...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Copper and copper alloys are used extensively in structural applications in which they are subject to moderately elevated temperatures. At relatively low operating temperatures, these alloys can undergo thermal softening or stress relaxation, which can lead to service failures...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...; the valve spring may have broken because corrosion had weakened it. The spring may have had insufficient strength and taken a set, allowing the valve to drop into the path of the piston, or the engine may have been raced beyond its revolutions per minute limit many times, causing coil clash and subsequent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... head with the piston, but the failure analyst must go beyond this immediate cause in order to recommend proper corrective measures. The valve may have stuck open because of faulty lubrication; the valve spring may have broken because corrosion had weakened it. The spring may have had insufficient...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the spring that sustained more extensive postfailure damage. Apparently, a hard material (possibly mill scale) was impressed during drawing of the wire, but was broken out during peening, leaving the depressions with sharp-bottomed corners. Fig. 10 Spring failure originating at a sharp-edged pitted...
Book Chapter

By Allan B. Dove
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... in the article under their quality descriptions or commodity names. These include low-carbon steel wire for general usage, wire for structural applications, wire for packaging and container applications, wire for prestressed concrete, wire for electrical or conductor applications, rope wire, mechanical spring...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
.... 3 Rupture life versus volume fraction of fine γ′ at a fixed total amount of fine and coarse γ′ for DS MAR-M 200 Hf alloy Single-crystal alloy PWA 1480 ( Table 1 ) offered a 25 to 50 °C (45 to 90 °F) temperature capability improvement in terms of time-to-1% creep, compared to the extensively...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005593
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... of projections are typically used with these processes ( Ref 2 ). These include embossed and solid projection welding. Embossed projections are often used with sheet components. The projections are then stamped into one of the two components. Embossed projection welding has been studied extensively ( Ref 3...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... quicker loading and greater production. Pneumatics was the next form of clamping to be pursued. It was easy to automate and to use. Pneumatic clamping is now used extensively for assembly and light-welding fixtures. These applications require automation and consistent clamping forces. Pneumatic clamps...
Book Chapter

By Eugene Shapiro
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003268
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... specifies a bend test to determine the modulus of elasticity in bending. Japanese Industrial Standard JIS 3130 specifies two tests to determine the elastic limit of spring plate or strip: the repeated deflection spring test and the moment type spring test. bend testing ductility strength specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003484
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., the valve is subjected to high-frequency hammering forces, and good resistance to galling adhesion on the valve seat is required. Automotive valves are typically produced from austenitic steel. While the cost is low, these parts have relatively high mass. In addition, high spring forces are required...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... are readily available. Copper alloys can be polished and buffed to almost any desired texture and luster. They can be plated, coated with organic substances, or chemically colored to further extend the variety of available finishes. Pure copper is used extensively for cables and wires, electrical contacts...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... of thermodynamics: (Eq 1) d U = d Q − d W where d U is the change in internal energy, d Q is the heat absorbed by the sample, and d W is the work done by the sample. For a reversible extension of an elastomeric rod by an amount, d l , under a force, F , Eq 1 becomes ( Ref 2 ): (Eq 2) d U...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... stabilizer box Fig. 5 Boeing 737 horizontal stabilizer assembly Current Production Aircraft Composite components are used extensively on current commercial production aircraft such as the Boeing 757 and 767 and the Airbus A310, which employ about 1500 kg (3300 lb) each, while smaller...