1-20 of 74 Search Results for

exponential distribution

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., distributing nuclei of recrystallized grains, growing the recrystallized grains, and updating the dislocation density. The article concludes with information on the developments in CA simulations. cellular automaton model static recrystallization dynamic recrystallization microstructure dislocation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Coatings and thin films can be studied with surface analysis methods because their inherently small depth allows characterization of the surface composition, interface composition, and in-depth distribution of composition. This article describes principles and examples of common...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article describes the results obtained by Volmer, Weber, Farkas, Becker, and Doring, which constitute the classical nucleation theory. These results are the predictions of the precipitate size distribution, steady-state nucleation rate, and incubation time. The article reviews a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article presents a general description of pulsed-laser deposition. It describes the components of pulsed-laser deposition equipment. The article also discusses the effects of angular distribution of materials. Finally, the article reviews the characteristics of high-temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... neutron diffraction, powder diffraction, and pair distribution function analysis. The relationship between detector space and reciprocal space are presented. Various factors involved in sample preparation, calibration, and techniques used for analyzing diffraction data are described. The article also...
Book Chapter

By Erhard Klar
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article focuses on the significant fundamental powder characteristics, which include particle size, particle size distribution, particle shape, and powder purity, followed by an overview of general and individual powder production processes such as mechanical, chemical...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003088
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... used statistical distributions: normal, log normal, Weibull, and exponential, which are continuous in nature and binomial Poisson and hypergeometric, which are discrete functions. Each of these statistical distributions are briefly described below. References 34 , 35 , and 36 provide a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... stresses present. Corrections for the exponential attenuation of the radiation penetrating the subsurface stress distribution and for relaxation of the stresses present due to layer removal are then necessary, as discussed subsequently. Because the surface is not disturbed in order for the lattice strain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... (CALPHAD based) ( Ref 8 ), elastic modulus ( Ref 9 ), and distributed defect potency ( Ref 10 ). Calibration of such a complex model begins with subcalibration of the individual models from independent experimental data, such as thermodynamic T 0 temperatures, composition-dependent shear moduli, and pre...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... addition, one can directly introduce anisotropy accompanying texture into simulations designed to assess the impact of factors such as residual-stress distributions or orientation dependence of stiffness and strength on the service performance of a component. Fig. 1 Schematic diagrams indicating the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... aluminum-copper eutectic systems aluminum-silicon eutectic systems copper-zinc peritectic systems Al-Si-Cu-Mg eutectic systems Fe-C-Cr superalloy MICROSEGREGATION is the nonuniform distribution of alloying elements within a volume characteristic of the solidification microstructure, that is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...-squares fit. Source: Ref 27 (adapted from Ref 14 ) Auger electrons undergo exponential decay as a function of distance, d , from the point of origin, following the expression exp (- d /λ). Nearly 63.2% of the signal seen at the surface is from the depth λ, and 95% of the signal is from 3λ. Thus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... number of molecular trajectories from an initially estimated configuration of the system. A corresponding distribution function is selected and stored at each point in the phase space. From the assumed distribution, a large number of test trajectories and molecular collisions are computed on a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... distinguishable solid states is then called a phase, and one speaks of the α phase and the β phase. Fig. 1 The distribution of atoms in solid, liquid, and vapor phases of alloys. (a) Two solid solutions formed in a 50% Fe-50% Cu alloy. (b) Liquid phase formed by 50% Fe-50% Cu alloy. (c) Two liquid phases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005435
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... . Small-particle experiments in metals and ceramics show that the pre-existing defects corresponding to N i in Eq 17 are in fact distributed in potency and described by an exponential cumulative potency distribution ( Ref 72 ): (Eq 18) N i ( ≥ n ) = N i o exp ⁡ ( − α n...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... image fall into two groups: transform techniques and iterative techniques. The transform techniques are generally based on the theorem of Radon, which states that any 2-D distribution can be reconstructed from the infinite set of its line integrals through the distribution. (A line integral in CT is the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... viscosity increases exponentially, with marginal improvements in properties creating difficulties during melt processing, such as injection molding ( Fig. 2 ). Thus, a balance of high and low molecular weights is needed to obtain good physical properties and permit reasonable processing conditions. Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... ingots microstructural scale segregation slowest-diffusing elements MANY CASTINGS AND INGOTS are given a homogenization heat treatment prior to further processing or hot working in order to evenly distribute the alloying elements throughout the microstructure ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 ). Solute...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... i remain constant, the mesoscale CDRX model leads to analytical expressions for the steady-state flow stress and microstructural parameters ( Ref 29 ). In particular, it predicts a decreasing exponential form for the distribution function of the subgrain-boundary misorientations: (Eq 57a) φ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... transformation Even in the simplest PM part geometry—a solid circular cylinder—uniaxial die compaction results in a density distribution in the part if it is over 25 mm (1 in.) in length. Powders do not behave like liquids, and the greater the distance the powder particles are from the moving punch face...