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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003975
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... fatigue, and mechanical fatigue. The article describes heat treating practices commonly employed for chromium- and tungsten-base AISI hot-work tool steels. It discusses the fabrication of impression dies, and the advantages and disadvantages of cast dies. The article concludes with a discussion on the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the brown (sintered) part with copper. The resulting part is a fully dense, production mold-making insert comprising 70% A6 tool steel and tungsten carbide, and 30% copper. This process has potential for the manufacture of forging dies. Advantages of the process include: The 3D Keltool process...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) press. Because the impact is less in presses than in hammers, dies can be less massive, thus requiring less tool steel to make the dies. Cast dies can be used. Also because presses deliver a less severe impact blow, dies can be operated at higher hardness, which prolongs die life. In addition, presses...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract The properties of irons and steels are linked to the chemical composition, processing path, and resulting microstructure of the material. For a particular iron and steel composition, most properties depend on microstructure. Processing is a means to develop and control microstructure...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Thread rolling is a cold-forming process for producing threads or other helical or annular forms by rolling the impression of hardened steel dies into the surface of a cylindrical or conical blank. Methods that use cylindrical dies are classified as radial infeed, tangential feed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003983
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... swaging dies. It is sometimes necessary to sacrifice some wear resistance in order to prevent die breakage due to lack of shock resistance. Numerous materials have been used for swaging dies. Typical tool steels for cold swaging include A8, D2, S3, S7, and M2 at hardnesses ranging from 55 to 62 HRC. M2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article is a pictorial guide to forms of corrosion that draws attention to common pitfalls or situations that have caused premature corrosion, sometimes with expensive consequences. The examples used are not exhaustive; they highlight the necessity to fully examine materials...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... special tools (for producing shapes) are used as auxiliary tools in forging production. Because most auxiliary tools are exposed to heat, they are usually made from the same steels as the dies. The handling of workpieces is often more difficult in open-die forging than in closed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001264
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Molds and dies Zinc die cast dies Alloy steel 25 1.0 Wear resistance and part release Glass molds Steel 50 2.0 Wear resistance and part release Plastic injection molds Alloy steel 15 0.6 Corrosion and wear resistance and part release Plastic extrusion dies Alloy steel 25 1.0...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... removed from hot-worked or hot-rolled steel before subsequent processing is initiated, in order to prevent wear on dies and rolls and avoid surface defects in the final product. This oxide scale originates during the hot working or hot rolling of steel, when the surface of the metal reacts with oxygen in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract The heat treatment of steel involves a number of processes (such as stress relieving, normalizing, annealing etc) to condition the microstructure and obtain desired properties. This article discusses typical heat treating process control procedures for carbon and low-alloy steels, as...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... expensive. (a) Low temperature. Source: Ref 3 On the basis of pounds of chemicals consumed or tons of steel treated, the greatest use of phosphate coatings is as a base for paint. Phosphate coatings are also used to provide: A base for oil or other rust-preventive material Lubricity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003976
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... a die location, V is the sliding velocity at any time, H is the hardness of the die location, and k is a constant dependent on several factors, such as billet material and scale formation. Thermal-fatigue cracking is a major mode of failure of hot working tool steel dies in forging...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003990
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... dies experience a much lower forging force than normal, they are generally small and are usually made of inexpensive materials, typically standard tool steels. Therefore, die cost is lower than in other conventional forging methods. Lubrication of the dies, although not essential, is suggested in order...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... material and hard plastic or low-carbon steel dies as tooling. Therefore, with relatively low-cost tooling and with some experimentation, preform shapes can be determined. Detailed information on physical modeling and the use of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) for forging design is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... pointed workpiece is placed in a thread roller. A bolt maker has a thread roller incorporated into it. The rolling dies are flat pieces of tool steel with a conjugate thread form on their faces. As the workpiece rolls between them, the thread form is impressed on its shank, and it drops out of the dies at...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... machining spindle speed surface cutting speeds FORGING DIES or inserts are machined from solid blocks or forged die steels. By using standard support components such as die holders and guide pins, which ensure the overall functionality of tooling assembly, the time necessary for manufacturing a die...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... tool materials are often used for the extrusion of either aluminum or magnesium. The dies used for the extrusion of aluminum alloys and copper alloys are generally made from AISI H11, H12, or H13 tool steels. For the extrusion of copper alloys, some companies specify tungsten hot work steels such as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., recommendations for specific applications, and tool life is provided in the article “Dies and Die Materials for Hot Forging” in this Volume. Using inserts in master blocks may be less costly than making the entire heading tool or the gripper dies from an expensive steel. However, the two more important...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... life to cycles to failure. Typically, these data are very expensive to obtain. Thus, it is extremely rare to find fatigue data for forging or cold heading dies in the literature. Die stress analysis is used to determine the stress level on a die during service. More than one stress state may be...