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exothermic gas atmospheres

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005983
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... or lean gas atmosphere, depending on individual applicatons. (c) Rich gas atmosphere. (d) (+40°F) (4.4°C) Dewpoint gas atmosphere. (e) Lean gas atmosphere. (f) Medium rich gas atmosphere. (g) Exothermic gas atmosphere may be used as a carrier. Source: Ref 1 Molecular nitrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... endothermic gas generators environmental hazards exothermic gas atmospheres gas pressure heat treating furnaces heat treatment quenching CONTROL OF FURNACE ATMOSPHERES is critical to successful heat treating with more precise metallurgical specifications. The prevention of surface oxidation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
..., and final cooling sections. This article provides information on the different zones of these furnace sections. It describes the types of atmospheres used in sintering, namely, endothermic gas, exothermic gas, dissociated ammonia, hydrogen, and vacuum. The article concludes with a discussion on the furnace...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005893
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... by the American Gas Association on the basis of the method of preparation or on the original constituents employed. These groups are designated and defined as follows: Class 100, exothermic base; Class 200, prepared nitrogen base; Class 300, endothermic base; Class 400, charcoal base; Class 500, exothermic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... atmospheres include endothermic gas, exothermic gas, dissociated ammonia (DA), hydrogen, hydrogen-nitrogen mixtures, and vacuum. The main function of the atmosphere is to protect a part from oxidation or nitridation, as may occur when heating in air. Frequently, however, critical aspects of a sintering...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... requires the use of alumina insulators and protection tubes; easily contaminated in other than oxidizing atmospheres Fig. 4 Exothermic atmosphere composition versus air-to-fuel ratio (natural gas) Fig. 6 Variation in the relation between dew point and carbon dioxide in the generation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... 5–1 87 5–1 11–12 BAg (a) , BCuP, RBCuZn (a) Copper, brass (a) Commonly referred to as exothermic-generated atmosphere 2 Combusted fuel gas (decarburizing) Room temperature 14–15 70–71 9–10 5–6 BCu, BAg (a) , RBCuZn, BCuP Copper (b) , brass (a) , nickel and nickel alloys, low-alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., wire, and strip. Exothermic atmospheres are also used as an inert blanket in production of glass, in food processing, and in rubber curing. Various chemical processes and storage facilities employ inert atmospheres produced by exothermic gas generators. Control of Input Gas Flow Meters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Destruction Cryogenic Burns Expansion Ratio and High Pressure Risks In addition to the intrinsic hazards of atmosphere constituent gases, the atmosphere systems such as endothermic gas, exothermic gas, dissociated ammonia atmospheres, and industrial gas nitrogen-base atmospheres are considered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... sufficiently to prevent it from falling through the belt. The furnace atmosphere is produced in exothermic gas units in which natural gas and air are blended to yield an atmosphere containing 17% H 2 , 12% CO, 4% CO 2 , and the balance of nitrogen. The gas is refrigerated to lower the dewpoint to the range...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
.... The former is virtually always operated in a hard vacuum, while the latter can operate in air, in an inert gas atmosphere, or in vacuum. Source: Ref 2 Fig. 5 Schematic illustrations of the three basic ways in which electrical energy, supplied by a power source, can be used to heat and fusion weld...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... exothermic or endothermic combusted gas can be introduced into the furnace. Sometimes, both flux and a reducing atmosphere are necessary. Pure and dry inert gases, such as argon and helium, are used to obtain special atmosphere properties. Fluxes should never be used when furnace brazing with a vacuum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005738
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
.... These typically are salt-laden sea air, erosive sand, dust, volcanic ash, and wide variations in humidity and atmospheric pollution. While stationary gas turbines also experience such varied environmental conditions, they are specific to the turbine location, and this makes coating selection more predictable...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Chemically active Exothermic Gas released Element added AlF 3 F … X … … … CaCl 2 F … … … … … MgCl 2 F … … … … … MnCl 2 F … X … … … KF F … … … … … NaF F … X … … Na NaCl F … … … … … KCl F … … … … … CaF 2 T X...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... include endothermic gas, exothermic gas, dissociated ammonia (DA), hydrogen, and hydrogen-nitrogen mixtures. The methods for producing and using these atmospheres are described elsewhere in this Volume. The selected furnace atmosphere can affect the final properties of the copper part. As shown in Table...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Typical fluxing compounds employed Table 1 Typical fluxing compounds employed Compound Fluidizer (F) thickener (T) Oxide surfactant Chemically active Exothermic Gas released Element added AlF 3 F … X … … … CaCl 2 F … … … … … MgCl 2 F … … … … … MnCl...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., capped, and rimmed; examples are shown in Fig. 6 . In this figure, ingot 1 is an example of a fully killed ingot where no gas is evolved during solidification. Ingots 2 to 4 are examples of semikilled ingots with increasing amounts of gas evolution. Ingot 5 is an example of a capped ingot where gas...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... with insulating or exothermic materials. This cover is especially important in ferrous metals, which lose substantial amounts of heat by radiation to the atmosphere. When the risers are covered by exothermic or insulating materials, this heat loss is effectively stopped. Pouring metal down a sprue causes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... No. Source Maximum dew point incoming gas Composition of atmosphere, % Filler metals Base metals Remarks H 2 N 2 CO CO 2 1 Combusted fuel gas (low hydrogen) Room temperature 0.5–1 87 0.5–1 11–12 BAg (a) , BCuP, RBCuZn (a) Copper, brass (a) Referred to commonly as exothermic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006672
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... capacity ( C p ) Processing conditions Melting temperature ( T m ) Polymorphic forms, purity, quality control Polymers T g Indicator of material properties, quality control, effect of additives T m Polymer processing, heat history Exotherm Reactions rate, curing of materials...