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evaporation rate

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Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 21 Variation of the field-evaporation rate with temperature. V dc is the direct current standing voltage, and V p is the voltage-pulse amplitude. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... condensation and evaporation rates, to describe the time evolution of the system. The predictions and extensions of the classical nucleation theory are discussed. The article also provides the limitations of classical nucleation theories in cluster dynamics. nucleation classical nucleation theory...
Image
Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 38 AP analyses of a grain boundary in molybdenum. Oxygen appears as O + at relatively high field-evaporation rates (a) and as molecular ions (MoO 3+ and so on) at relatively low rates (b). The neon ions are from field-adsorbed imaging gas (helium was also present). Source: Ref 15 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001326
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and high flash points. Characteristics of isoparaffins Table 3 Characteristics of isoparaffins Commercial name (a) Flash point Distillation range Evaporation rate (b) Vapor pressure (c) °C °F °C °F kPa mm Hg Isopar C −7.2 19 97–103 207–217 560 13.1 98 Isopar E 7.2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... that vaporizes materials by thermal means (that is, evaporation or sublimation), but other vapor sources can be used. The advantage of vacuum evaporation is that films of a variety of materials can be deposited at high rates over large areas in a very pure form. Limitations of vacuum evaporation are that often...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... The process is a hybrid of the thermal evaporation process and sputtering with the evaporation rate being maintained at a higher rate than the atoms that can be sputtered from the substrate. Some evaporant atoms pass through the plasma in atomic form, while some atoms collide with electrons from the substrate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... of evaporation rate is strong. For example, in the case of tungsten at 20 K, the evaporation rate changes by more than an order of magnitude for a 1% change in field strength. Calculated and experimental evaporation fields Table 3 Calculated and experimental evaporation fields Material Calculated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... For vapors originating from sources that sublimate, such as carbon, actively cooled supports outside the heat-affected zone have been used. However, the relatively low evaporation rate (compared with the cathodic arc technique), short run times, and issues associated with filament lifetime have hindered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of a protective oxide may limit its protective qualities or remove the oxide entirely, because the evaporation rate increases exponentially with temperature. Platinum alloys and refractory metals in particular tend to have volatile oxides. Suboxides and unusual valences are also often found at high temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of this new technique. The general attributes of PLD for thin film growth are summarized in Table 1 . In addition to congruent evaporation and stoichiometric vapor transport, the high instantaneous growth rates lead to low impurity incorporation from the background. Although the pulsed lasers used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003692
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... temperature to promote water evaporation and the second at a higher temperature to induce the cross-linking reaction. Water-dispersible air-dry coatings have not achieved viable commercialization. This is due to hydrolytic instability that leads to limited in- can storage life, a slow rate of air-dry cure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... the evaporation rate is effective but needs to be controlled so that the fluid does not boil, creating a potential for air pollution and the need for air permits. Pretreating Pretreating involves breaking the fluid down by separating the water from the fluid concentrate and contaminants. The reduced volume...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... on the film surface at individual rates that are determined by the chamber pressure and the evaporation rate, respectively. The lower left portion of Fig. 2 shows a 200 eV N + beam directed toward the substrate. Some of this charged plasma is charge-exchange neutralized in near collisions with the ambient...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... in cast iron evaporators. Hot alkalis at >30% concentration attack unalloyed irons. Temperature should be <80 °C (<175 °F) in concentrations up to 70% if the corrosion rate is not to exceed 0.25 mm/yr (10 mils/yr). The corrosion rate of ductile cast iron is similar to that of gray cast iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... more expensive than the aliphatic petroleums. Blends of solvents are offered to provide improved solvency, reduce cost, reduce fire hazard, adjust evaporation rates, and so on. The alcohols are used alone, or in conjunction with chlorocarbons or chlorofluorocarbons, for special cold cleaning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... in liters. Exempt-Solvent-Based Primers TCA is the exempt solvent that is most generally used in primers. It is compatible with most organic resins, but it has a lower solubility parameter and a faster evaporation rate than other solvents used in formulating aerospace materials. TCA has been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005707
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... over a surface at relatively light loads without impact, for example, when material is being finished with sandpaper. Hardness is one of the most important properties in resisting low-stress abrasion. For pure and annealed metals, abrasive wear resistance, the inverse of the wear rate, tends...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract Vapor-deposition processes fall into two major categories, namely, physical vapor deposition (PVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). This article describes major deposition processes such as sputtering, evaporation, ion plating, and CVD. The list of materials that can be vapor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... requires separate sources for each component of the superconductor. This multisource evaporation creates problems with accurate rate control of each of the sources (especially if a large oxygen pressure is present) as well as geometrically induced composition variation on the substrates (remember, because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... coefficient can be either positive or negative, the flow can be up or down the temperature gradient, causing significant changes in metal flow. The last driving force to be considered is evaporative recoil-driven flow ( Ref 11 ). Intense surface heating causes a high local evaporation rate...