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evaporation rate

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... with heterophase fluctuations that led to the formation of precipitates. It discusses the gas cluster dynamics using the kinetic approach to describe nucleation. The article presents key parameters, such as cluster condensation and evaporation rates, to describe the time evolution of the system. The predictions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001326
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... ethyl ketone, because they are not classified as hazardous air pollutants and can be selected with low vapor pressures and high flash points. Characteristics of isoparaffins Table 3 Characteristics of isoparaffins Commercial name (a) Flash point Distillation range Evaporation rate (b...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... determines the evaporation field for a given element. Thus, refractory materials, such as tungsten and iridium, are most resistant to field evaporation; low melting point materials, such as aluminum and gold, field evaporate most easily. The field dependence of evaporation rate is strong. For example...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...: The Relationship of Structure to Properties Symposium , Aita C.R. and Sreeharsha K.S. , Ed., MRS Symp. Proc. , Vol 47 , MRS Publications , 1985 , p 41 13. Pergellis A.N. , Evaporation and Sputtering Substrate Heating Dependence on Deposition Rate , J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A , Vol 7...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... on the substrate in ionic form. The process is a hybrid of the thermal evaporation process and sputtering with the evaporation rate being maintained at a higher rate than the atoms that can be sputtered from the substrate. Some evaporant atoms pass through the plasma in atomic form, while some atoms collide...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... by various PVD processes Ion plating is a vacuum coating process in which a portion of the coating species impinges on the substrate in ionic form. The process is a hybrid of the thermal evaporation process and sputtering with the evaporation rate being maintained at a higher rate than the atoms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... is the formation of volatile metal chlorides. These metal chlorides develop partial pressures above the critical value of ∼10 −4 atm. Thermodynamic analysis shows that the resistant base alloy should consist of nickel with high amounts of chromium and molybdenum, because their evaporation rates would be low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., the relatively low evaporation rate (compared with the cathodic arc technique), short run times, and issues associated with filament lifetime have hindered the commercial development of the anodic arc source. The utility of the anodic arc lies in its ability to generate a flow of predominant monocharged ions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003692
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... temperature to promote water evaporation and the second at a higher temperature to induce the cross-linking reaction. Water-dispersible air-dry coatings have not achieved viable commercialization. This is due to hydrolytic instability that leads to limited in- can storage life, a slow rate of air-dry cure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and prevent the evaporation process from taking place. Some types of agitation, such as the introduction of small air bubbles to dissipate the oil layer, will aid the evaporation process. The use of heat to increase the evaporation rate is effective but needs to be controlled so that the fluid does not boil...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... for several years. Two approaches have been used. Anode Dipping Process Single Tank Method TCA is the exempt solvent that is most generally used in primers. It is compatible with most organic resins, but it has a lower solubility parameter and a faster evaporation rate than other solvents used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Attributes of PLD Table 1 Attributes of PLD Attribute Effect on film Positive Congruent evaporation Stoichiometric deposition Large range of deposition pressures Control of vapor energy; control of volatile components High instantaneous deposition rate Low impurity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... evaporation rates, and so on. The alcohols are used alone, or in conjunction with chlorocarbons or chlorofluorocarbons, for special cold cleaning applications such as removing activated soldering fluxes. Acetone and other solvents having low flash points are used for special purposes only, such as cleaning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... the vapor source and the substrate. The gas and the vapor impinge on the film surface at individual rates that are determined by the chamber pressure and the evaporation rate, respectively. The lower left portion of Fig. 2 shows a 200 eV N + beam directed toward the substrate. Some of this charged plasma...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... for each component of the superconductor. This multisource evaporation creates problems with accurate rate control of each of the sources (especially if a large oxygen pressure is present) as well as geometrically induced composition variation on the substrates (remember, because these are line compounds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... driving force to be considered is evaporative recoil-driven flow ( Ref 11 ). Intense surface heating causes a high local evaporation rate, and the momentum of the evaporated metal atoms creates a reaction force that depresses the surface of the melt and may be sufficient to cause the formation of a cavity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... from the formation of an electrolytic cell within the wash tank. If parts must be dry and ambient evaporation rates are unacceptable, a forced-air drier may be required. High volumes of heated air are used. Flow rates and temperatures can be as high as practical while preventing part damage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... rate. The surfaces to be coated then are placed into the evaporant stream, and the source atoms adhere to this surface. Because of the directionality of the flux and the generally low temperatures at the substrate, a columnar microstructure with a preferred orientation frequently forms. In many cases...