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evaporation process equipment

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... advantages, limitations, and applications of vacuum deposition processes. Finally, it provides information on the gas evaporation process, its processing chamber, and related systems. evaporation process equipment gas evaporation process control process monitoring reactive evaporation thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005958
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... and nitrocarburizing processes and the equipment required for heat treating tool steels to improve hardness, wear resistance, and thermal fatigue. The various nitriding and nitrocarburizing processes covered are salt bath nitrocarburizing, gas nitriding and nitrocarburizing, and plasma nitriding and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... most common types of dust collection equipment used in bulk solids processing, namely, fabric filters, electrostatic precipitators, and wet scrubbers. It also discusses a wide variety of corrosion problems encountered in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. corrosion emissions control...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... Abstract Hardness testing equipment is important as all results from the induction equipment are graded by the hardness testing equipment. This article includes maintenance tips and points to consider regarding hardness test equipment, power supplies, controls, programmable logic controllers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... furnace designs and auxiliary equipment are made to specific heat treating processes, such as austempering and martempering. Salt bath systems for steel hardening are of two general types. The first type uses atmosphere austenitizing (carburizing or neutral) followed by salt quench. The second type...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article explains the main types and characteristic causes of failures in boilers and other equipment in stationary and marine power plants that use steam as the working fluid with examples. It focuses on the distinctive features of each type that enable the failure analyst to...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-temperature energy sources and potentially explosive gases and liquids used as aids to chemical processing. Because these heat treating processes require careful control for optimum technical results as well as for safety, proper training of operating personnel is a primary consideration. Proper equipment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... coatings. coating properties cold spray coating cold spray deposition cold spray equipment deposition efficiency COLD SPRAY has come to be understood, within the larger family of thermal spray processes, as a materials deposition process in which relatively small particles (ranging in size...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... 16. Wallis R.A. , Garwood D.R. , and Ward J. , The Use of Modeling Techniques to Improve the Quenching of Components , Heat Treating: Equipment and Processes—1994 Conference Proceedings , Totten G.E. and Wallis R.A. , Ed., ASM International , 1994 , p 105 – 116...
Book Chapter

By J.R. Keough
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
.... , Equipment, Process and Properties of Modern Day Austempering , Proc. Int. Heat Treating Conference: Equipment and Processes , April 1994 • Lefevre J. and Hayrynen K.L. , Austempered Materials for Powertrain Applications , Proc. 26th ASM International Heat Treating Society , 2011...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Wind Instruments has done extensive testing of DCT and offers the process on its wind instruments ( Ref 18 ). There is much activity in the high-performance stereo industry in treating vacuum tubes, wire, power cords, vacuum tubes, transformers, connectors, and more. All cryogenic treatment equipment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... recirculation fans HEAT TREATING FURNACES require several different control systems and integration for optimum technical results and safe operation. Most modern heat treating control systems are equipped with dedicated process controller(s) linked with programmable logic controllers (PLCs) or personal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract This article presents the primary considerations and mechanisms for corrosion and explains how they are involved in the selection of materials for process equipment in refineries and petrochemical plants. It discusses the material selection criteria for a number of ferrous and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... and production. It discusses corrosion problems that are specific to the various types of environments or equipment used in secondary recovery, including producing wells, producing flow lines, and injection wells. Corrosion mitigation methods and guidelines are also discussed for each type of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... less than 200 kW. They can be open- or closed-looped with an integral evaporator or secondary heat exchanger. These systems are the most expensive in terms of capital equipment cost, and have high operating costs, but very low maintenance. They usually are indoors and discharge hot air into the plant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003692
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... specialized high- speed roller application equipment is used to coat the sheet steel as it is unwound from a coil. The paint used in the coil-coating process can be of virtually any generic type, although alkyds, polyesters, epoxies, and zinc-rich epoxy coatings are the most prevalent. Certain lining...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract The Replicast process is developed to overcome the formation of lustrous carbon defects and carbon pickup observed in conventional evaporative pattern casting processes. This article provides a discussion on the pattern production, process capabilities, advantages, and limitations of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) refers to the process wherein evaporated atoms produced by physical vapor deposition are simultaneously struck by an independently generated flux of ions. This article discusses the energy utilization of this process. It describes the physical and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., particular care must be taken to remove all impurities in the chamber and to have a very clean substrate. The basic process (with an electron-beam source) is shown in Fig. 2 . Fig. 2 Basic evaporation process Very large evaporation equipment, which was developed for the optical industry, is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006561
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... pressure argon used during a copper-braze cycle to suppress copper loss from evaporation Because laser and electron-beam AM processes are similar to the welding process, induced stresses are expected. During the high-intensity-heating phase, material expands at the melt pool, while cooler areas...