1-20 of 241 Search Results for

evaporation

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article discusses the fundamentals of thermal vaporization and condensation and provides information on the various vaporization sources and methods of vacuum deposition. It offers an overview of reactive evaporation and its deposition techniques. The article also explains the...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract The Replicast process is developed to overcome the formation of lustrous carbon defects and carbon pickup observed in conventional evaporative pattern casting processes. This article provides a discussion on the pattern production, process capabilities, advantages, and limitations of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... condensation and evaporation rates, to describe the time evolution of the system. The predictions and extensions of the classical nucleation theory are discussed. The article also provides the limitations of classical nucleation theories in cluster dynamics. nucleation classical nucleation theory...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Physical vapor deposition (PVD) coatings are harder than any metal and are used in applications that cannot tolerate even microscopic wear losses. This article describes the three most common PVD processes: thermal evaporation, sputtering, and ion plating. It also discusses ion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) refers to the process wherein evaporated atoms produced by physical vapor deposition are simultaneously struck by an independently generated flux of ions. This article discusses the energy utilization of this process. It describes the physical and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... well beyond the vaporization temperature. A plume of evaporated material is ejected from the target and is collected on a nearby substrate. The congruent non-equilibrium evaporation of multicomponent materials and the transfer of the target composition to the deposited film make available high-quality...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... transit from source to part and the energy with which ions impinge on that part. This level of control can be contrasted to competing vacuum coating technologies, such as electron-beam evaporation and magnetron sputtering, where the atoms of coating material travel from the source to the part to be coated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001326
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Evaporation rate (b) Vapor pressure (c) °C °F °C °F kPa mm Hg Isopar C −7.2 19 97–103 207–217 560 13.1 98 Isopar E 7.2 45 117–137 243–279 155 6.9 52 Isopar G 41.1 106 160–174 320–345 27 1.9 14 Isopar H 53.3 128 179–189 354–372 9 0.83 6.2 Isopar K 52.7...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... point where it can no longer be recycled and must be disposed of. Currently there are three methods: haul everything away; evaporate the water and haul the residual away; or perform chemical/mechanical pretreatment. When selecting a company that hauls away the spent fluid and treats it, it is...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., B 188, B 280, B 359, B 372, B 395, B 447 Bus tube, conductors, wave guides C12200 Phosphorus deoxidized copper B 68, B 75, B 88, B 111, B 280, B 306, B 359, B 360, B 395, B 447, B 543 Water tubes; condenser, evaporator and heat-exchanger tubes; air conditioning and refrigeration, gas, heater...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... quality. Metallic coatings (gold or chromium) are preferred for imaging purposes because they increase the image-forming electron yield; such coatings are prepared by thermal evaporation or sputter coating. Carbon coatings prepared by evaporation are used for x-ray analysis because the surface film is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... and on the surface once applied. Volatile components evaporate from the coating into the air after the coating is applied to the surface. Therefore, volatile components are present in the wet film but not in the dried film of the coating. Nonvolatile components typically include the resin or binder...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... instruments used for sample handling and preparation. Many scalpels and razor blades contain finishing oils on the surface. These should be cleaned with isopropanol and then dried in an oven at an elevated temperature to evaporate residual solvent; this is especially important when performing a trace or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... the actual fracture surface. For this reason, sound interpretation of a fractograph depends on knowing the replication procedure used. The shadowing of replicas and of fracture surfaces is carried out in a laboratory vacuum evaporator fitted with holders for tilting and rotating the replica or...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... used in drip melting to make use of reflected electron beams and to reduce evaporation and splattering. The end of a compact is welded to the front of the following one to avoid dropping semisolid material into the pool. Table 2 lists processing parameters that have been successfully used to electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... organic binder. With inorganic zinc-rich coatings, curing is harder to assess, because curing is dependent on water evaporation, hydrolysis, acid reaction, or combinations thereof. The inorganic zinc-rich coating may be hard but not be suitably cured. Depending on the type of inorganic zinc-rich coating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... nonconductive sample is to be examined using a conventional SEM, several methods exist to produce a conductive layer on the surface. The two most common are evaporation and sputter coating. Evaporation coating consists of heating a metal filament to a high temperature in a vacuum chamber to cause evaporation of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... kPa, or 50 mbar, or 37.5 torr, and higher) can be obtained with plasma torches. This is an important prerequisite for the avoidance of selective evaporation of alloying elements from the melt, an aspect that is particularly important in the case of titanium and superalloys. Plasma arc torches also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... surfaces. Overlayer deposition for volatile species is accomplished by using a gas-handling system consisting of a gas bottle or other source of vapor and a set of control valves. For nonvolatile species, an evaporation source is used that consists of a container for the source material inside an...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... when applied to a metal or other substrate “a tough, flexible and tenaciously adherent film is formed upon evaporation of the solvent and air drying.” United States Patent 1,893,873 was issued to Roy H. Kienle for an oil-modified alkyd resin on January 10, 1933, and assigned to General Electric Company...