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Book: Casting

Series: ASM Handbook

Volume: 15

Publisher: ASM International

Published: 01 December 2008

DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005211

EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0

... Abstract This article presents the binary

**eutectic****phase****diagram**to understand the various structures that evolve in a binary**eutectic**system during solidification. It describes the various classifications and solidification principles of the**eutectic**structures. Formation of halos in**eutectic**...
Abstract

This article presents the binary eutectic phase diagram to understand the various structures that evolve in a binary eutectic system during solidification. It describes the various classifications and solidification principles of the eutectic structures. Formation of halos in eutectic microstructures of most alloy systems is also discussed.

Series: ASM Handbook

Volume: 22A

Publisher: ASM International

Published: 01 December 2009

DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005402

EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2

... Abstract A

**phase****diagram**is a graphical representation of the**phase**equilibria of materials in terms of temperature, composition, and pressure. This article provides an overview on the background of**phase****diagram**calculation software. It presents an algorithm to calculate binary stable**phase**...
Abstract

A phase diagram is a graphical representation of the phase equilibria of materials in terms of temperature, composition, and pressure. This article provides an overview on the background of phase diagram calculation software. It presents an algorithm to calculate binary stable phase equilibria. The article summarizes a rapid method to obtain a thermodynamic description of a multicomponent system. It also provides information on thermodynamically calculated phase diagrams.

Book: Casting

Series: ASM Handbook

Volume: 15

Publisher: ASM International

Published: 01 December 2008

DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005212

EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0

... Abstract This article illustrates equilibrium

**phase****diagram**for the aluminum-silicon system showing metastable extensions of the liquidus and solidus lines. It describes the classification and microstructure of the aluminum-silicon**eutectic**. The article presents the theories of solidification...
Abstract

This article illustrates equilibrium phase diagram for the aluminum-silicon system showing metastable extensions of the liquidus and solidus lines. It describes the classification and microstructure of the aluminum-silicon eutectic. The article presents the theories of solidification and chemical modification of the aluminum-silicon eutectic.

Book: Casting

Series: ASM Handbook

Volume: 15

Publisher: ASM International

Published: 01 December 2008

DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005213

EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0

... the graphite and γ growth curves for gray iron cross and are equal (Δ T γ/Gr ); at points 1 and 2 on the curves, the growth rates are the same, but the undercooling differs. Figure 10 shows the

**phase****diagram**in the vicinity of the**eutectic**point, with Δ T γ′ and Δ T γ″ drawn for growth...
Abstract

Cast iron exhibits a considerable amount of eutectic in the solid state. This article discusses the structure of liquid iron-carbon alloys to understand the mechanism of the solidification of cast iron. It illustrates nucleation of the austenite-flake graphite eutectic, austenite-spheroidal graphite eutectic, and austenite-iron carbide eutectic. The article provides a discussion on primary austenite and primary graphite. Depending on the carbon equivalent, the primary phase in cast iron can be either austenite for hypoeutectic cast iron or graphite for hypereutectic cast iron. The article also describes the growth of eutectic in cast iron in terms of isothermal solidification, directional solidification, and multidirectional solidification.

Book Chapter

Book: Alloy Phase Diagrams

Series: ASM Handbook

Volume: 3

Publisher: ASM International

Published: 27 April 2016

DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006223

EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4

... of

**eutectic**and binary**phase****diagrams**from Gibbs free-energy curves. binary solution**eutectic****phase****diagram**Gibbs free energy Gibbs free-energy curves**phase****diagram**single-component unary system thermodynamics IN RECENT YEARS, the application of**phase****diagram**information obtained from...
Abstract

Thermodynamic descriptions have become available for a large number of alloy systems and allow the calculation of the phase diagrams of multicomponent alloys. This article begins with a discussion on three laws of thermodynamics: the Law of Conservation of Energy, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, and the Third Law of Thermodynamics. It informs that for transformations that occur at a constant temperature and pressure, the relative stability of the system is determined by its Gibbs free energy. The article describes the Gibbs free energy of a single-component unary system and the Gibbs free energy of a binary solution. It schematically illustrates the structure of a binary solid solution with interatomic bonds and shows how the equilibrium state of an alloy can be obtained from the free-energy curves at a given temperature. The article concludes with information on the construction of eutectic and binary phase diagrams from Gibbs free-energy curves.

Book Chapter

Book: Alloy Phase Diagrams

Series: ASM Handbook

Volume: 3

Publisher: ASM International

Published: 27 April 2016

DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006225

EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4

...

**eutectics**solidification terminal solid solutions If the two-**phase**field in the solid region of Fig. 1 is expanded so that it touches the solidus at some point, as shown in Fig. 2(a) , complete miscibility of the components is lost. Instead of a single solid**phase**, the**diagram**now shows two...
Abstract

This article begins with a schematic illustration of a eutectic system in which the two components of the system have the same crystal structure. Eutectic systems form when alloying additions cause a lowering of the liquidus lines from both melting points of the pure elements. The article describes the aluminum-silicon eutectic system and the lead-tin eutectic system. It discusses eutectic morphologies in terms of lamellar and fibrous eutectics, regular and irregular eutectics, and the interpretation of eutectic microstructures. The article examines the solidification of a binary alloy of exactly eutectic composition. It concludes with a discussion on terminal solid solutions.

Series: ASM Desk Editions

Publisher: ASM International

Published: 01 December 1998

DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003085

EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3

... volumes; and four-

**phase**points, while not shown in Fig. 9 , can exist as an invariant plane. The composition of a binary**eutectic**liquid, which is a point in a two-component system, becomes a line in a ternary**diagram**, as shown in Fig. 9 . Fig. 9 Ternary**phase****diagram**showing three-**phase**...
Abstract

Alloy phase diagrams are useful for the development, fabrication, design and control of heat treatment procedures that will produce the required mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of new alloys. They are also useful in solving problems that arise in their performance in commercial applications, thus improving product predictability. This article describes different equilibrium phase diagrams (unary, binary, and ternary) and microstructures, description terms, and general principles of reading alloy phase diagrams. Further, the article discusses plotting schemes; areas in a phase diagram; and the position and shapes of the points, lines, surfaces, and intersections, which are controlled by thermodynamic principles and properties of all phases that comprise the system. It also illustrates the application of the stated principles with suitable phase diagrams.

Book: Casting

Series: ASM Handbook

Volume: 15

Publisher: ASM International

Published: 01 December 2008

DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005206

EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0

...

**phase**, Ω L and Ω S , lens-shaped isomorphous ( Fig. 2 ),**eutectic**( Fig. 2 ), or pertitectic ( Fig. 2 )**phase****diagrams**can be obtained. A positive value of Ω φ results in the formation of a miscibility gap (a region of**phase**separation) at lower temperature. However, since the contribution of G...
Abstract

This article discusses the application of thermodynamic in the form of phase diagrams for visually representing the state of a material and for understanding the solidification of alloys. It presents the derivation of the relationship between the Gibbs energy functions and phase diagrams, which forms the basis for the calculation of phase diagrams (CALPHAD) method. The article also discusses the calculation of phase diagrams and solidification by using the Scheil-Gulliver equation.

Book Chapter

Book: Alloy Phase Diagrams

Series: ASM Handbook

Volume: 3

Publisher: ASM International

Published: 27 April 2016

DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006221

EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4

... volumes; and four-

**phase**points, while not shown in Fig. 6 , can exist as an invariant plane. The composition of a binary**eutectic**liquid, which is a point in a two-component system, becomes a line in a ternary**diagram**, as shown in Fig. 6 . Fig. 6 Ternary**phase****diagram**showing three-**phase**...
Abstract

The application of phase diagrams is instrumental in solid-state transformations for the processing and heat treatment of alloys. A unary phase diagram plots the phase changes of one element as a function of temperature and pressure. This article discusses the unary system that can exist as a solid, liquid, and/or gas, depending on the specific combination of temperature and pressure. It describes the accomplishment of conversion between weight percentage and atomic percentage in a binary system by the use of formulas. The article analyzes the effects of alloying on melting/solidification and on solid-state transformations. It explains the construction of phase diagrams by the Gibbs phase rule and the Lever rule. The article also reviews the various types of alloy systems that involve solid-state transformations. It concludes with information on the sources of phase diagram.

Book Chapter

Book: Alloy Phase Diagrams

Series: ASM Handbook

Volume: 3

Publisher: ASM International

Published: 27 April 2016

DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006231

EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4

... stabilization (iron-chromium) and austenite stabilization (iron-nickel). austenite stabilization binary iron

**phase****diagrams**carbon-chromium-iron isopleth**eutectic**system ferrite stabilization Gibbs triangle isopleth plots isothermal plots liquidus plots peritectic system**phase**equilibrium...
Abstract

This article describes the liquidus plots, isothermal plots, and isopleth plots used for a hypothetical ternary phase space diagram. It discusses the single-phase boundary (SPB) line and zero-phase fraction (ZPF) line for carbon-chromium-iron isopleth. The article illustrates the Gibbs triangle for plotting ternary composition and discusses the ternary three-phase phase diagrams by using tie triangles. It describes the peritectic system with three-phase equilibrium and ternary four-phase equilibrium. The article presents representative binary iron phase diagrams, showing ferrite stabilization (iron-chromium) and austenite stabilization (iron-nickel).

Book Chapter

Book: Alloy Phase Diagrams

Series: ASM Handbook

Volume: 3

Publisher: ASM International

Published: 27 April 2016

DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006222

EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4

... Abstract This article begins with the one-component, or unary,

**diagram**for magnesium. The**diagram**shows what**phases**are present as a function of the temperature and pressure. When two metals are mixed in the liquid state to produce a solution, the resulting alloy is called a binary alloy. The...
Abstract

This article begins with the one-component, or unary, diagram for magnesium. The diagram shows what phases are present as a function of the temperature and pressure. When two metals are mixed in the liquid state to produce a solution, the resulting alloy is called a binary alloy. The article describes the various types of solid solutions such as interstitial solid solutions and substitutional solid solutions. Free energy is important because it determines whether or not a phase transformation is thermodynamically possible. The article discusses the thermodynamics of phase transformations and free energy, as well as kinetics of phase transformations. It concludes with a description of solid-state phase transformations that occur when one or more parent phases, usually on cooling, produces a phase or phases.

Series: ASM Handbook

Volume: 22A

Publisher: ASM International

Published: 01 December 2009

DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005415

EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2

.... Wang Y. , Ma N. , Chen Q. , Zhang F. , Chen S.L. , and Chang Y.A. , JOM , September 2005 , p 32 88. Kobayashi R. , Physica D , Vol 63 , 1993 , p 410 89. Kaufman L. and Bernstein H. , Computer Calculation of

**Phase****Diagrams**with...
Abstract

This article discusses the fundamental aspects of phase-field microstructure modeling. It describes the evolution of microstructure modeling, including nucleation, growth, and coarsening. The article reviews two approaches used in the modeling nucleation of microstructure: the Langevin force approach and explicit nucleation algorithm. Calculation of activation energy and critical nucleus configuration is discussed. The article presents the deterministic phase-field kinetic equations for modeling growth and coarsening of microstructure. It also describes the material-specific model inputs, chemical free energy and kinetic coefficients, for phase-field microstructure modeling. The article provides four examples that illustrate some aspects of phase-field modeling.

Book Chapter

Book: Alloy Phase Diagrams

Series: ASM Handbook

Volume: 3

Publisher: ASM International

Published: 27 April 2016

DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006229

EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4

... divided into essentially independent sections. In Fig. 1 , the congruent melting Mg 2 Pb

**phase**divides the lead-magnesium**diagram**into two separate**eutectic**reactions that can be analyzed separately. The details of different types of intermetallic compounds are covered in the article “Solid Solutions...
Abstract

In some phase diagrams, the appearance of several reactions is the result of the presence of intermediate phases. These are phases whose chemical compositions are intermediate between two pure metals, and whose crystalline structures are different from those of the pure metals. This article describes the order-disorder transformation that typically occurs on cooling from a disordered solid solution to an ordered phase. It provides a table that lists selected superlattice structures and alloy phases that order according to each superlattice. The article informs that spinodal decomposition has been particularly useful in the production of permanent magnet materials, because the morphologies favor high magnetic coercivities. It also describes the theory of spinodal decomposition with a simple binary phase diagram.

Series: ASM Handbook

Volume: 20

Publisher: ASM International

Published: 01 January 1997

DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002462

EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8

... article describes the specific microstructure/property relationships that are used to make specific properties available to the designers of structural applications. It provides the examples of

**phase****diagrams**that illustrate**eutectic**and peritectic reactions. aluminum beryllium chemical properties...
Abstract

This article focuses on the monolithic form of nonferrous alloys. The nonferrous alloys include aluminum, copper, nickel, cobalt, titanium, zinc, magnesium, beryllium, refractory metals, and their alloys. Each metal and alloy offers unique combinations of useful physical, chemical, and structural properties that are made available by its particular composition and the proper choice of processing method. The article describes the composition, designation system, properties, and processing method of these metals and alloys. It discusses the effect of alloying elements in these alloys. The article describes the specific microstructure/property relationships that are used to make specific properties available to the designers of structural applications. It provides the examples of phase diagrams that illustrate eutectic and peritectic reactions.

Series: ASM Desk Editions

Publisher: ASM International

Published: 01 December 1998

DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003174

EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3

... similar composition. A protective atmosphere must be used during heat treatment to control the carbon content at the surface of the casting. A section from the Fe-C-Si equilibrium

**phase****diagram**at the 2.5% Si level is shown in Fig. 3 . The**diagram**shows that cast iron undergoes a**eutectic**...
Abstract

Cast iron, which usually refers to an in situ composite of stable eutectic graphite in a steel matrix, includes the major classifications of gray iron, ductile iron, compacted graphite iron, malleable iron, and white iron. This article discusses melting, pouring, desulfurization, inoculation, alloying, and melt treatment of these major ferrous alloys as well as carbon and alloy steels. It explains the principles of solidification by describing the iron-carbon phase diagram, and provides a pictorial presentation of the basic microstructures and processing steps for cast irons.

Series: ASM Handbook

Volume: 9

Publisher: ASM International

Published: 01 December 2004

DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003723

EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1

... common alloys, microstructure is affected by the element that solidifies first from the melt, as described in more detail in the preceding section, “Equilibrium

**Phase****Diagrams**,” for isomorphous and**eutectic**alloy systems. In terms of initial nucleation during solidification of an alloy, tiny groups...
Abstract

This article introduces basic physical metallurgy concepts that may be useful for understanding and interpreting variations in metallographic features and how processing affects microstructure. It presents some basic concepts in structure-property relationships. The article describes the use of equilibrium binary phase diagrams as a tool in the interpretation of microstructures. It reviews an account of the two types of solid-state phase transformations: isothermal and athermal. The article discusses isothermal transformation and continuous cooling transformation diagrams which are useful in determining the conditions for proper heat treatment (solid-state transformation) of metals and alloys. The influence of the mechanisms of phase nucleation and growth on the morphology, size, and distribution of grains and second phases is also described.

Book: Casting

Series: ASM Handbook

Volume: 15

Publisher: ASM International

Published: 01 December 2008

DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005215

EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0

... L i * , and solid, C S i * ,

**phases**that would be at equilibrium at a temperature within the freezing range as given by the equilibrium tie line. (See the article “Thermodynamics and**Phase****Diagrams**” in this Volume for**phase****diagram**fundamentals.) For k i < 1, the...
Abstract

This article discusses the two extremes of solute redistribution that results in microsegregation. The solute redistribution includes equilibrium solidification, nonequilibrium Gulliver-Scheil solidification, and nonequilibrium solidification with back diffusion. The measurement and kinetics of microsegregation are discussed for the binary isomorphous systems: titanium-molybdenum; binary eutectic systems: aluminum-copper and aluminum-silicon; binary peritectic systems: copper-zinc; multicomponent eutectic systems: Al-Si-Cu-Mg; and for systems with both eutectic and peritectic reactions: Fe-C-Cr and nickel-base superalloy.

Series: ASM Handbook

Volume: 1A

Publisher: ASM International

Published: 31 August 2017

DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006295

EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5

... Solidification of the Fe-C-P

**Eutectic**, The Metallurgy of Cast Iron , Lux B. et al. , Ed., Georgi Publishing , 1975 , p 197 28. Ohtani H. and Nishizawa T. , Calculation of Fe-C-S Ternary**Phase****Diagram**, Trans. ISIJ , Iron and Steel Institute of Japan , Vol 26 , 1986 , p 655...
Abstract

The control of the solidification process of cast iron requires understanding and control of the thermodynamics of the liquid and solid phases and of the kinetics of their solidification, including nucleation and growth. This article addresses issues that allow for the determination of probability of formation and relative stability of various phases. These include the influence of temperature and composition on solubility of various elements in iron-base alloys; calculation of solubility lines, relevant to the construction of phase diagrams; and calculation of activity of various components. It discusses the role of alloying elements in terms of their influence on the activity of carbon, which provides information on the stability of the main carbon-rich phases of iron-carbon alloys, that is, graphite and cementite. The article reviews the carbon solubility in multicomponent systems, along with saturation degree and carbon equivalent.

Book Chapter

Book: Alloy Phase Diagrams

Series: ASM Handbook

Volume: 3

Publisher: ASM International

Published: 27 April 2016

DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006226

EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4

.... Rhines F.N. ,

**Phase****Diagrams**in Metallurgy , McGraw-Hill , 1956 , p 84 4. Invariant Transformation Structures , Metallography and Microstructures , Vol 9 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2004 , p 152 – 164 5. Hillert M. , Keynote Address:**Eutectic**and Peritectic...
Abstract

Similar to the eutectic group of invariant transformations is a group of peritectic reactions, in which a liquid and solid phase decomposes into a solid phase on cooling through the peritectic isotherm. This article describes the equilibrium freezing and nonequilibrium freezing of peritectic alloys. It informs that peritectic reactions or transformations are very common in the solidification of metals. The article discusses the formation of peritectic structures that can occur by three mechanisms: peritectic reaction, peritectic transformation, and direct precipitation of beta from the melt. It provides a discussion on the peritectic structures in iron-base alloys and concludes with information on multicomponent systems.

Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions

Publisher: ASM International

Published: 01 December 1998

DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003124

EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3

... crystallization of coarse primary particles. The most important liquid-to-solid transformations for aluminum alloys are the

**eutectic**and the peritectic. Examples of**phase****diagrams**illustrating**eutectic**and peritectic reactions are discussed in the following paragraphs, and**phase****diagrams**for aluminum alloys are...
Abstract

The physical and mechanical properties of aluminum alloy can be improved by strengthening mechanisms such as strain hardening used for non-heat treatable aluminum alloy and precipitation hardening used for heat treatable aluminum alloy. This article focuses on the effect of strengthening mechanisms on the physical and mechanical properties of non-heat treatable and heat treatable aluminum alloys. It describes the use of the aluminum alloy phase diagram in determining the melting temperature, solidification path, equilibrium phases, and explains the effect of alloying element in phase formation.