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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article is a comprehensive collection of tables listing: dangerous reactions of chemicals and designations of etchants; chemical-polishing solutions for irons and steels and nonferrous materials; attack-polishing solutions, macrostructure etchants for iron and steel; and major...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... producing better, more consistent results. Recommended procedures to prepare cast irons and examples of high-alloy cast iron microstructures revealed using a variety of etchants are presented. Several etchants are used to reveal the matrix microstructure, depending on the alloy content. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... for preparing ductile cast iron specimens with a wide range of phases and constituents as well as variations in graphite morphologies. A wide variety of matrix microstructures can be obtained in ductile irons. Examples are presented using a variety of etchants. Control of the nodularity of graphite in ductile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... Abstract The metallographic specimen preparation process for microstructural investigations of cast iron specimens usually consists of five stages: sampling, cold or hot mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching with a suitable etchant to reveal the microstructure. This article describes...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., and describes the procedures, advantages, and disadvantages of electrolytic and chemical polishing. It also provides a detailed account of procedures, precautions, and composition for preparation and handling of etchants. chemical polishing electrolytic polishing etchants grinding mechanical polishing...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... that list the etchants for macroscopic examination and microscopic examination of nonferrous metals and special-purpose alloys. etching grinding macroscopic examination metallographic techniques microscopic examination mounting nonferrous metals polishing sectioning special-purpose alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...-field illumination, dark-field illumination, polarized-light microscopy, interference and contrast microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. The article also provides a discussion of sample preparation materials such as dyes, etchants, and stains for the analysis of composite materials using optical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... on refractory metals. The article presents and analyzes several micrographs, provides etchant formulas for various materials, and discusses the unique characteristics of rhenium and its alloys. electrolytic etching etchants grinding metallographic preparation metallography microstructure molybdenum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... on etchants for tin and tin alloys in tabular form. It presents the procedure recommended for electron microscopy to determine the nature of the intermetallic compound formed by the reaction between tin or tin-lead coatings on various substrates. The article concludes with an illustration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... equipment and techniques and provides data on etchants and etching procedures. specimen grinding liquid-phase sintering macroexamination metallographic examination microstructure particle size analysis powder metallurgy alloys particle shape analysis specimen polishing specimen preparation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0005650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... and handling of etchants, solvents, acids, bases, and other chemicals. It describes the safety precautions and procedures for handling concentrated and dilute hydrofluoric acid. The article concludes with a discussion on the precautions to be followed in the event of spills and cleanup. acids bases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article describes the microstructure of copper alloys, including copper-zinc (brasses), bronzes, copper-nickel, and copper-nickel-zinc, and examines the effect of oxygen content on alloy phases observed in different product forms. The article also discusses inclusions, etchants...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article describes the metallographic specimen preparation procedures for cast iron test samples, including mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching. It discusses the makeup and use of black-and-white and selective color etchants and where one might be preferred over the other...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... and describes several methods for film formation, namely, heat tinting, color etching, anodizing, potentiostatic etching, vapor deposition, and film deposition by sputtering. It provides information on the general procedures and precautions for etchants and reagents used in metallographic microetching...
Book Chapter

By Samuel M. Purdy
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003750
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... as the apparatus used. It discusses selected etchants for efficient macroetching of various metals and their alloys, including iron, steel, high-alloy steels, stainless steels, high-temperature alloys, titanium, titanium alloys, aluminum, aluminum alloys, copper, and copper alloys. The article also describes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article is a compilation of color etchants that have been developed for a limited number of metals and alloys. It describes the optical methods for producing color, such as polarized light and differential interference contrast, with illustrations. The article discusses film...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., and describes the procedures, advantages, and disadvantages of electrolytic and chemical polishing. It also provides a detailed account of procedures, precautions, and composition for preparation and handling of etchants. chemical polishing electrolytic polishing etchants grinding mechanical polishing...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... that list the etchants for macroscopic examination and microscopic examination of nonferrous metals and special-purpose alloys. etching grinding macroscopic examination metallographic techniques microscopic examination mounting nonferrous metals polishing sectioning special-purpose alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in this article. Typical structures observed in these specimens are also covered, as is the effect of alloying elements and processes. The etchants used for many of the micrographs included in this article are listed in Table 1 . Table 1 Etchants for zinc and zinc alloys Etchant Composition...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002170
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... maskants or masks, and parts are etched by immersion in a tank of etchant. The process is rarely electrically assisted. Most of the process applications are for producing parts with high strength-to-weight ratios. Chemical milling differs from chemical blanking, which involves the etching of very thin...