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etchants

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... describes the procedures, advantages, and disadvantages of electrolytic and chemical polishing. It also provides a detailed account of procedures, precautions, and composition for preparation and handling of etchants. chemical polishing electrolytic polishing etchants grinding mechanical polishing...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... list the etchants for macroscopic examination and microscopic examination of nonferrous metals and special-purpose alloys. etching grinding macroscopic examination metallographic techniques microscopic examination mounting nonferrous metals polishing sectioning special-purpose alloys...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... possibility that grinding debris, abrasive or particles of other metals will become embedded in the pores during cutting, grinding, and polishing. Also, moisture may become entrapped in the pores and may bleed out during etching, resulting in staining. Another possibility is the entrapment of etchant, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... lift. SEM, 2700× (R.J. Schwinghamer, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center) Fig. 1338 Misregistration of vacuum-deposited aluminum at an ohmic contact window allowed etchant to tunnel around the perimeter of the window, resulting in poor step coverage. The metallized layer was deposited on Si/SiO...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of hydrofluoric acid is shown in Fig. 6 . The commonly used nital etchant does not reveal the structure of an IF steel. Only a few portions of grain boundaries are missing. Figure 7 depicts delta ferrite in a billet of 17-4 PH martensitic stainless steel revealed selectively by etching with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of fracture. The etchant used with each micrograph is also noted in the caption and identified by its common name or composition. Detailed information on the composition selection, preparation, and handling of etchants is available in the article “Contrast Enhancement and Etching” in Volume 9 of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000623
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... forged to 75-mm (3-in.) billets, followed by β extrusion to 23 mm (0.92 in.) in diameter and α-β swaging to 16 mm (0.62 in.) in diameter. Etchant (when used): 17 mL benzalkonium chloride, 35 mL ethanol, 40 mL glycerine, 25 mL HF. Fig. 1183 and 1184 : Same region unetched and etched, respectively, on...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003194
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... milling. Printing using photoresists common in chemical blanking. Etchant (function of metal and often proprietary): For aluminum, solutions of sodium hydroxide. For steel, solutions of hydrochloric plus nitric acids. For copper, solutions of iron chloride plus nitric acid. Etchants can be conductors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... etchant. Coarse grinding scratches must be removed; even very fine polishing scratches may not be tolerable in examining failed parts. Pullout, pitting, cracking of hard particles, smear, and other preparation artifacts must be avoided. Relief (i.e., excessive surface-height variations between...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... different casting processes. Dendrite cell size and constituent particle size decrease with increasing cooling rate, from sand cast to permanent-mold cast to die cast. Etchant, 0.5% hydrofluoric acid. 500× Typical tensile properties Elongation, % Tensile strength Yield strength MPa ksi MPa...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... surface layer. The depth of this deformed layer depends on the machining parameters as well as the metal type. For example, highly alloyed copper alloys such as 70-30 brass are among the most sensitive ( Ref 7 ). To reveal the abrasion artifacts in 70-30 brass, etchants are used to remove the smeared...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... ferritic and austenitic alloys, the critical grain size for martensitic steels is that of the parent austenite phase (i.e., the prior-austenite grain size). Delineation of the prior-austenite grain boundaries in martensitic steels by use of selective etchants is difficult but can often be achieved ( Fig. 7...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... subsequent bleed-out of the etchant can obscure the microstructural features. The microstructure should be examined in both the unetched and etched conditions. With carbon and low-alloy steels it is important to evaluate the shape and distribution of the manganese sulfides in the unetched condition. In some...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., to contamination of the acid baths, or to the wrong choice of etchant. Careful thought should be given to all materials that come in contact with beryllium. By taking the proactive stance of understanding the chemical composition of these materials, corrosion problems can be avoided...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... minutes. When the sample is hot, it is removed from the water, and the surface to be etched is immersed briefly in a solution of Poulton's etch. (This etchant contains the following ingredients: 60% HCl, 30% HNO 3 , 5% HF, and 5% H 2 O.) This acid is held at room temperature. Alternatively, the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... . Fig. 4 Examples of grain flow in the underhead fillet region of headed fasteners. (a) Uniform grain flow pattern in alloy 718. Etchant: 6 mL H 2 O, 60 mL HCl, and 6 g CuCl 2 . (b) Fold in the fillet of A-286. Etchant: Marble's reagent. Courtesy of F. Hogue, Hogue Metallography Fig. 5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
...) that were nucleated at the grain boundaries of the as-rolled grains. Etchant: 2% nital. Original magnification: 200× Fig. 6 Fe-0.07% oxygen alloy that was deformed and partially recrystallized, showing new grains (light) that were nucleated at iron oxide particles (dark). 2% nital etch...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... used for water containers, threaded steel couplings of oil-drilling strings, and in seacoast atmospheres. Coatings subject to mild etchants are included. (a) 10 μm (400 μin.) for steel substrates. (b) 20 μm (800 μin.) for steel substrates Tin can be deposited from either alkaline or...