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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article is a comprehensive collection of tables listing: dangerous reactions of chemicals and designations of etchants; chemical-polishing solutions for irons and steels and nonferrous materials; attack-polishing solutions, macrostructure etchants for iron and steel; and major...
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 12 The effects of different etchants on solution-annealed and aged alloy X-750. (a) Etched using glyceregia. Original magnification 100×. (b) Etched using Kalling's reagent 2. Original magnification 100×. (c) Etched using Marble's reagent. 100×. (d) Etched using aqua regia. 100× (e More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 7 Carbide appearance with nital and picral etchants. (a) 9310 steel normalized by austenitizing 2 h at 885 °C (1625 °F) and cooled slowly in the furnace. Structure consists of scattered carbide particles (dark) in a ferrite matrix (light). 3% nital etch. 500×. (b) Same steel More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 39 Results from different etchants in specimen preparation of 18% Ni maraging steel (300 CVM). Solution treated 1 h at 815 °C (1500 °F), surface activated, and gas nitrided 24 h at 440 °C (825 °F). (a) Etched with nital, but this etchant does not clearly reveal the nitrided microstructure More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... producing better, more consistent results. Recommended procedures to prepare cast irons and examples of high-alloy cast iron microstructures revealed using a variety of etchants are presented. Several etchants are used to reveal the matrix microstructure, depending on the alloy content. The article...
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Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 10 Influence of etch time on measurement of ferrite grain size. Etchant: 2% nital More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 8 Transgranular near-neutral-pH stress-corrosion crack in Nital etchant. Original magnification: 100× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 14 Light micrograph showing stain (arrows pointing up) from the etchant (Vilella's reagent) that seeped from the shrinkage gap (wide arrows pointing down) between the phenolic resin mount and the specimen of M2 high-speed steel More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 31 Slag in steel metal. (a) Oblong. Etchant, 2% nital. 165×. (b) Lamellar. Etchant, 2% nital. 165×. (c) Jagged irregular. Fatigue fractograph as-is. ∼15× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 36 Pulsed GMAW spot weld showing a lack of fill-in. Etchant, 50% nitric-50% acetic acid. 4× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 48 Micrograph of weld metal microcrack. Etchant, 2% nital. 215× More
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Published: 01 January 1989
Fig. 7 Surface finish improvement produced by TEA etchant. The initial surface was produced with a standard etchant. More
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Published: 01 January 1989
Fig. 8 Comparison of surface finishes produced by standard aluminum etchant and by TEA etchant. Material: 7075-T6 as received from mill More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 13 Influence of etchant upon the ability to observe spheroidized cementite in AISI 1008 sheet steel. (Left) Etched with 4% picral. (Right) Etched with 2% nital. 500× More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 59 Theta phase, AlCu 2 , colored blue by an etchant consisting of water, nitric acid, and ammonium molybdate, diluted with ethanol (bright-field illumination) in a hypereutectic Al-45%Cu cast alloy More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 13 Outlining of grains using chemical etching. Etchant: modified Poulton reagent (60% HCl, 30% HNO 3 5% HF, 5% H 2 O) More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 23 Typical dendrites in an A356 alloy in a computer-processed image. Etchant: modified Poulton reagent (60% HCl, 30% HNO 3 , 5% HF, 5% H 2 O) More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 4 Arc-melted microstructure of Ti-6Al-4V. Etchant: 10 mL HF, 5 mL HNO 3 , 85 mL H 2 O More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 27 (a) Example of an oxide film in an AM60B high-pressure die casting. Etchant 5, Table 7 . Courtesy of C.J. Padfield. (b) An oxide cluster in a direct chill cast AZ31 billet. As-polished (unetched). Courtesy of F. Pravdic, ARC Leichtmetallkompetenzzentrum Ranshofen More
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Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 3 Same alloy and etchant as Figure 2 correctly prepared so the true structure of the pewter is apparent. The tin-rich matrix is shown in contrast; SbSn and Cu 6 Sn 5 intermetallic particles are unattacked. 500× More