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etchant designation

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... describes the procedures, advantages, and disadvantages of electrolytic and chemical polishing. It also provides a detailed account of procedures, precautions, and composition for preparation and handling of etchants. chemical polishing electrolytic polishing etchants grinding mechanical polishing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... to reveal the grain flow characteristic of anisotropy also varies. Metals with poor corrosion resistance are readily etched, whereas those with good corrosion resistance require more corrosive etchants and extended etching times to reveal grain flow. The results of tension tests shown in Table 1...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... different casting processes. Dendrite cell size and constituent particle size decrease with increasing cooling rate, from sand cast to permanent-mold cast to die cast. Etchant, 0.5% hydrofluoric acid. 500× Typical tensile properties Elongation, % Tensile strength Yield strength MPa ksi MPa...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... . Fig. 4 Examples of grain flow in the underhead fillet region of headed fasteners. (a) Uniform grain flow pattern in alloy 718. Etchant: 6 mL H 2 O, 60 mL HCl, and 6 g CuCl 2 . (b) Fold in the fillet of A-286. Etchant: Marble's reagent. Courtesy of F. Hogue, Hogue Metallography Fig. 5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... control, equipment, surface preparation, and crack patterns and other characteristics of hard chromium plating. It offers recommendations for the design and use of plating racks, describes the problems encountered in hard chromium plating, and their corrective procedures. The article provides information...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... possibility that grinding debris, abrasive or particles of other metals will become embedded in the pores during cutting, grinding, and polishing. Also, moisture may become entrapped in the pores and may bleed out during etching, resulting in staining. Another possibility is the entrapment of etchant, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of fracture. The etchant used with each micrograph is also noted in the caption and identified by its common name or composition. Detailed information on the composition selection, preparation, and handling of etchants is available in the article “Contrast Enhancement and Etching” in Volume 9 of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... parts which include tests that assess the quality of the finish, coating thickness, adhesion, and corrosion resistance, and gives a short note on service performance, which includes service condition classifications. coating thickness metallizing part design plastics plating quality assurance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000623
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... forged to 75-mm (3-in.) billets, followed by β extrusion to 23 mm (0.92 in.) in diameter and α-β swaging to 16 mm (0.62 in.) in diameter. Etchant (when used): 17 mL benzalkonium chloride, 35 mL ethanol, 40 mL glycerine, 25 mL HF. Fig. 1183 and 1184 : Same region unetched and etched, respectively, on...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003194
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... milling. Printing using photoresists common in chemical blanking. Etchant (function of metal and often proprietary): For aluminum, solutions of sodium hydroxide. For steel, solutions of hydrochloric plus nitric acids. For copper, solutions of iron chloride plus nitric acid. Etchants can be conductors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... etchant. Coarse grinding scratches must be removed; even very fine polishing scratches may not be tolerable in examining failed parts. Pullout, pitting, cracking of hard particles, smear, and other preparation artifacts must be avoided. Relief (i.e., excessive surface-height variations between...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... ferritic and austenitic alloys, the critical grain size for martensitic steels is that of the parent austenite phase (i.e., the prior-austenite grain size). Delineation of the prior-austenite grain boundaries in martensitic steels by use of selective etchants is difficult but can often be achieved ( Fig. 7...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... continuous cooling transformation diagram crystal structure decarburization dimensional change grain size grinding heat treatment machining mechanical cracking microcracks microsegregation nonmetallic inclusions phase transformation process design quench distortion quenchants quenching...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... subsequent bleed-out of the etchant can obscure the microstructural features. The microstructure should be examined in both the unetched and etched conditions. With carbon and low-alloy steels it is important to evaluate the shape and distribution of the manganese sulfides in the unetched condition. In some...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of failure analysis, ductile failures are relatively uncommon, because their prevention through proper design is reasonably straightforward. Ductile failures, however, are of considerable interest in metal-forming operations and in quality control studies, such as materials evaluation. Ductile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... toward the top. The longitudinal axis of the cylindrical specimen, as well as the loading orientation, is horizontal. Note that the chemical etchant used highlights aluminum within the material. In that case, the bulk of the material exhibits relatively equally distributed aluminum. The portions of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... imperfections during etching. Oxides, rolled-in dirt, and many other surface contaminants can sometimes be eliminated by deoxidizing the work with a 2 to 4 wt% chromic acid/10 to 15 wt% sulfuric acid etchant at 60 to 70 °C (140 to 160 °F) prior to alkaline etching. This treatment removes stains resulting from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... casting at ~5% airfoil span. Etchant: 33% glycerol, 33% nitric acid, 33% acetic acid, and 1–3% hydrofluoric acid. Casting contains no grain boundaries. Source: Ref 20 Fig. 13 (a) Heater tube that failed due to stress rupture. (b) and (c) Stress-rupture voids near the fracture. Source: Ref 18...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... compared to hot isostatically pressed silicon nitrides at equivalent contact stress. Source: Ref 20 Most ceramic bearings are of the hybrid design, because it can be difficult to attach ceramic races to metallic shafts. These bearings usually operate under oil or grease lubrication and a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in the microstructure of the material, which are apparent when the material is polished and etched. The etchant used varies with the material, but for most bearing steels, a 3% nital solution works well. These microstructural changes may include the formation of dark etching regions ( Ref 49 – 59...