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etch-attack polishing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003747
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... polishing, being greater the larger the applied load. As-polished. 100× Fig. 23 Comparison of etch-attack and electrochemical methods of polishing tungsten, a representative refractory metal. (a) Polishing by an etch-attack technique using Al 2 O 3 abrasive suspended in an aqueous solution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... alloy variation Note: Use fairly large swabs with all etching procedures. (a) Dispose after using because the etchant may become unstable with time and a chemical reaction may occur. Fig. 1 Zircaloy 4 as-cast ingot. (a) Outside edge. (b) Center section. As-attack polished, heat tinted...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in grain boundaries of low-carbon steel. Addition of about 0.5 to 1 mL zephiran chloride wetting agent increases speed of attack. 3 Vilella's reagent: 5 mL HCl, 1 g picric acid, 100 mL ethanol (95%) or methanol (95%) For contrast etching (a) ; may reveal prior austenite grains in tempered martensite...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...; reveals carbide particles in grain boundaries of low-carbon steel. Addition of about 0.5 to 1 mL zephiran chloride wetting agent increases speed of attack. 3 Vilella's reagent: 5 mL HCl, 1 g picric acid, 100 mL ethanol (95%) or methanol (95%) For contrast etching (a) ; may reveal prior austenite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... the examination. Etching may also disturb the inclusion-steel interface. For example, an acid etch will attack and destroy the lead layer in the free-machining steel in Fig. 38 . Therefore, it is good metallographic practice to examine the specimen in the as-polished condition before etching the specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... ) … Outlined ( Ref 5 ) … Dark blue, brown ( Ref 14 ) Dark blue, 30 s; violet, 150 s ( Ref 16 ) … … … α-Al … … … … Grain boundaries ( Ref 8 ) … Grain boundaries ( Ref 8 ) Microsegregation ( Ref 14 ) Grain boundaries ( Ref 14 ) … … … … Al 9 Co 2 Not attacked ( Ref 8 ) Etched ( Ref 8...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Grinding Polishing Final Polishing Vibratory Polishing Electropolishing Electrolytic Etching Etchants Polish-Etching Etchants Attack Polishing Etchants Mounting Grinding Electromechanical Polishing Polish-Etching Etchants Niobium Alloys Tantalum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in comparison to SSN ( Fig. 5 ) Fig. 7 Scanning electron micrograph of hot isostatically pressed Si 3 N 4 (HIPSN) etched in molten NaOH at 320 °C (610 °F) for 2 min. The intergranular glassy phase between the Si 3 N 4 grains has been attacked by the etchant. It is not possible to identify...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., and shear-band etch markings in copper alloys If the specimen is electrolytically polished, the specimen must be removed from the bath with the potential still applied; otherwise, an interfering film of copper will deposit on the surface. Moreover, an electrolytically polished surface must first be etched...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... parameters, either manually or by the use of image analyzers. Preparation of metallographic specimens generally requires five major operations: sectioning, mounting, grinding, chemical polishing, and etching. The article provides information on the principles of technique selection in mechanical polishing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... to produce a flat reflective surface. The polished section was then etched by immersion in a solution that attacked the various grain orientations at different rates. Fig. 5 Macrostructure of as-cast aluminum ingot. Transverse section shows outer chill zone and columnar grains that have grown...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... practical consequences—it affects the response of the surface to etching. Even on well-prepared surfaces, a very fine layer of damaged material will remain that can be removed by mechanical-chemical polishing (“attackpolishing). In mechanical-chemical polishing, a small amount of dilute etchant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... or stringers As polished Tan, light brown Gray Heat tinted Silver halo … HNO 3 etched No attack … U 3 Si 2 Globular, frequently rimmed with U 3 Si Attack polished with dilute HF-HNO 3 Gray … U 3 Si Globular, or rim around globular U 3 Si 2 Attack polished with dilute HF-HNO 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... 2 O 2 for best results (b) Use fresh for coppers and copper alloys; film on etched aluminum bronze can be removed using weak Grard's solution, preferred for brasses 2. 1 g Fe(NO 3 ) 3 and 100 mL H 2 O Immersion Etching and attack polishing of coppers and alloys 3. 25 mL NH 4 OH, 25 mL...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Definitions of etching methods Table 1 Definitions of etching methods Method Definition Anodic etching Reveals the microstructure by selective anodic dissolution of the polished surface using a DC current. Variation with layer formation: anodizing Attack polishing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... is etched in an aqueous solution, a cell is created, and the coating is attacked in preference to the steel (the zinc is less noble than the iron in the steel). This attack is usually uncontrolled, and thus, water-based etchants should be avoided for these types of coatings. Also, if water is used during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... with 80 mL distilled water, and a few drops of 30% H 2 O 2 For etching tin-coated copper and copper alloys (polish attack) 11. 3 parts acetic acid, 4 parts HNO 3 , 16 parts H 2 O General etchant for lead-tin alloys and for soldered joints (a) Safety requirements should be strictly observed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., the specimen is first etched at 0.78 A/cm 2 (5 A/in. 2 ). Gamma, if present, will be attacked; ε phase will not be attacked. The specimen is then repolished and etched at 0.15 A/cm 2 (1 A/in. 2 ), which will reveal any ε phase present. Further details on electrolytic etching of zinc alloys are available...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... uniformly distributed throughout the chromium coating. Microcracks only exist on the surface of the chromium where they have not been plated in. When chromium electrodeposits are etched in hydrochloric acid or etched anodically, the microribbons are attacked before the bulk of the chromium and become...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... Can be stored  6. 4 g CuSO 4 , 20 mL HCl, 20 mL H 2 O Marble's reagent. Used primarily with austenitic grades. Use at room temperature to 10 s. Attacks σ phase  7. 3 parts HCl, 2 parts glycerol, 1 part HNO 3 Glyceregia. Popular etch for all stainless grades. Use fresh; never store. Discard...