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etch-attack polishing

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... microetchants, so that contrast is adequate for visual examination. Generally, the depth of etch attack of a macroetchant is substantially greater than for microetchants. Macroetchants may be used at room temperature or at temperatures up to about 80 °C (180 °F) depending upon the purpose of the study and the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... If etching is desired, the polished, unmounted specimen is immersed in 85% H 3 PO 4 at 180 to 250 °C (360 to 480 °F) for 8 to 10 min. The etchant preferentially attacks second phases and grain boundaries, and this must be taken into account in an interpretation of the etched microstructure...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... successful for polishing copper and its alloys. In automatic polishing, human variables are greatly minimized. Attack polishing (combined polishing and etching) with 1% ferric nitrate or with ammonium hydroxide-ammonium persulfate ( Table 6 ) can be more safely done with automatic equipment than by hand...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... contamination, the soaking time can vary from 20 min to 4 h, as determined by visual observation of the reaction. After this treatment, parts must be rinsed thoroughly in water and dried. When possible, a test specimen should be immersed for the maximum time anticipated and then examined for chemical attack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... critical when processing aluminum, because the metal is susceptible to etching by both acids and alkalis, and because gas generated during chemical attack can build up pressure in the barrel and cause serious accidents. Barrels must be vented when processing aluminum. Compounds that are nearly neutral (pH...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... also used. In the electrolytic system, the work can be either anodic or cathodic polarity, provided the voltage and current can be controlled to avoid anodizing or spark discharge, and subsequent pitting. Removing these soils is essential before acid etching to provide uniform acid attack. The soils...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...) NaCN 20–45 g/L (3–6 oz/gal) Room temperature 30–60 5 Anodic acid etch (c) H 2 SO 4 250–1005 g/L (33.5–134 oz/gal) 30 max 86 max 60 max Low-carbon steel bulk-processed parts 6 Alkaline cleaner (d) Alkali 30–60 g/L (4–8 oz/gal) 82–99 180–210 60–120 7 Acid pickle HCl 25...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... practices, that is, the use of a protective inert and/or vacuum furnace atmosphere to prevent oxidation. Pickling should not be used to overhaul material by dissolving away appreciable amounts of metal. This practice can cause severe, irreversible damage such as pitting and intergranular attack. Significant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... pH of 7.0 or above, so as not to etch magnesium surfaces. Emulsion cleaners incorporating water with the solvent should be tested before use to avoid possible attack or pitting of the metal. Alkaline cleaning is the most frequently used method of cleaning magnesium alloys preparatory...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... discharge, and subsequent pitting. Removal of these soils is essential before acid etching to provide uniform acid attack. The soils must be removed before heat treatment and joining to prevent contamination and consequent loss of ductility. Mechanical descaling methods such as sandblasting, shot...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... plastic molding operations Carving or decorative etching of glass, porcelain, wood, or natural stone such as granite or marble All pigmented drawing lubricants are difficult to remove from metal parts. Consequently, many plants review all aspects of press forming operations to avoid the use...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... soften and remove, to some extent, buffing compounds and other oils and greases ( Ref 5 , 6 ). Emulsion soak cleaners usually are made from a hydrocarbon base such as kerosene and a water solution that contains soaps, emulsifiers, and an inhibitor to prevent etching of the zinc and zinc alloy surfaces...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... rapidity of solidification during the zinc die casting process results in metastable structures. In alloys 2, 3, 5, and 7 a characteristic five-layer microstructure is seen. This consists of: Layer 1—a surface chill layer of fine primary eta in a dark etching eutectic matrix Layer 2—a thin often...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... metal loss or etching. It does not preferentially attack areas in which intergranular carbides are present. It is particularly useful in descaling the straight chromium grades without the preliminary sandblasting that is frequently required prior to acid descaling. Use of molten salts is not...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... rough and pitted surface caused by preferential acid attack. Sulfuric acid, 35 vol% at 65 °C (150 °F), is recommended for pickling immediately following salt bath conditioning and rinsing to remove molten salt and residual softened scales. An acid of this formula has very little effect on titanium metal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... sand is used in some areas where it is both available and of adequate quality. Alumina used in glass reduces the coefficient of expansion, increases tensile strength, and makes the glass more resistant to abrasion weathering and attack by acids. The various feldspar products and nepheline syenite are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... s to 5 min Hydrochloric acid bath Hydrochloric acid (b) 40–90 vol% Water bal Temperature of solution Room temperature Immersion time 1–3 min (a) 1.83 sp gr. The bath needs additives to stabilize peroxide and accelerators to maintain etch rate. Proprietary products are...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.../mechanical polishing process often uses a fluid mixed with an extremely fine abrasive. The type of fluid used causes a chemical reaction on the surface of the part, thus etching the surface of the workpiece. The fine abrasive mixed with the fluid mechanically removes the etched material from the surface to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... plated in. When chromium electrodeposits are etched in hydrochloric acid or etched anodically, the microribbons are attacked before the bulk of the chromium and become visible as microcracks. The tensile stress in most electroplated chromium deposits increases with deposit thickness until microcracks are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of temper carbon in malleable cast iron etched using nital and viewed using bright field (a) and Nomarski DIC (b). DIC reveals the surface topography more effectively than bright field. Fig. 39 Attack-polished 14-karat gold etched using equal parts 10% NaCN and H 2 O 2 (30% concentration...