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erosion rate

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... erosion initiates on the wall material. The initial stages of erosion consist of incubation, acceleration, maximum rate, and deceleration ( Ref 1 ). In the incubation stage, little or no material loss occurs by LDI, while roughening and metallurgical changes take place in the wall material. This is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... unique wear parameter or rating of a material. Consequently, a general discussion of wear testing must encompass overall methodology. This article presents a brief review of wear testing methods. Detailed information about significant wear mechanisms, tribological phenomena, and test methods appear in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... sensitivity of elastic, brittle, and ductile materials to the angle of impact generally follows the behavior shown in Fig. 1 , with ductile materials experiencing the maximum rate at approximately 20 to 30° and brittle materials at approximately 90° ( Ref 50 ). This tendency of maximum erosion for a ductile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Source: Ref 57 A relationship of the same form as that used in erosion studies to model wear mass, W ( Ref 56 ), which gives a declining wear rate, has also been used successfully to predict wear in percussive impact of large bodies ( Ref 29 , 58 ): (Eq 8) W = K N e n where e...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... materials, Φ SPE decreases with the impact angle, because the conditions for brittle fracture become less critical. Figure 13 shows an empirical erosion map obtained for a ductile API X100 steel used for pipelines ( Ref 27 ). The erosion wear intensity is given by the normalized erosion rate, E...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... walls can locally erode the metal, enlarging the casting cavity and creating surface defects. Erosion rate has been related to the metal velocity and other parameters in a few previous studies, based mainly on empirical correlations ( Ref 34 ). For example, in die casting, erosion strength has been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... iron content, all unalloyed grades of titanium possess the same useful range of resistance in environments in which corrosion rates are normally very low ( Ref 11 , 12 ). However, under active conditions in which titanium exhibits significant general corrosion (such as in strong reducing acid media...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...: Concentration of solution components in weight percent Dissolved contaminants, even at parts per million levels pH of solution Solution temperature, potential temperature extremes, and rate of change of temperature Degree of solution aeration Percent and type of solids suspended in the solution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... potential to which the aluminum is polarized, either by cathodic reaction on the aluminum itself or on another metal electrically connected to it. The potential to which the aluminum is polarized by a specific cathode reaction determines corrosion current density and corrosion rate. Potential-current...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... solidification, a portion of this carbon separates from the melt as either iron carbide or graphite. The form that the excess carbon takes is determined by the rate of cooling. If the cooling is rapid, the carbon will solidify as iron carbide. If the cooling is slow, the carbon will solidify as graphite. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... revealed that tin was the most beneficial alloying element. The Zr-2.5-Sn alloy was named Zircaloy-1 and was recommended for the Nautilus reactor. By 1952, data showed that Zircaloy-1 had an increasing rate of corrosion over time. An urgent search for a new alloy began. Fortunately, Bettis Atomic Power...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... densities were attributed to the presence of oxygen, which accelerated the corrosion rate. Corrosion behavior of steel containers in latent TES molten eutectic KCl-LiCl at temperatures between 310 and 420 °C (590 and 790 °F) in air and in argon was evaluated using the long-term weight-loss technique for up...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0004050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... attack as a function of temperature for (a) chromia-forming alloys and (b) alumina-forming alloys. Corrosion rates are given in arbitrary units (a.u). Chlorine in fuels and particle erosion by bed particles give rise to rapid material wastage by erosion-corrosion in fluidized bed combustion boilers...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... temperatures, but above −100 °C (−150 °F) hydrogen may severely embrittle titanium. The potential for embrittlement is enhanced where hydrogen flow rates are high or where coatings on the titanium become damaged. In unalloyed titanium and many titanium alloys, weld zones are just as resistant to corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... measured with a computerized three-dimensional measuring technique on tooth replicas over a period of four years ( Ref 72 ). The steady-state wear rates at enamel occlusal contact areas are about 29 μm/year for molars and about 15 μm/year for premolars. These data agree with earlier reports of 33 μm/year...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Designs that increase turbulence or result in excessive flow rates should be avoided where erosion-corrosion may be a problem ( Fig. 9 ). Gaskets in flanges should fit properly, intrusions in a flow stream should be avoided, and elbows should be given a generous radius. Finally, crevices should be avoided...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... complete the production run without additional maintenance. A die casting die is used as an example, since it requires a high level of maintenance due to the combination of high pressure and melt velocity with high cycling rate. Other tools and patterns require similar maintenance, probably to a lesser...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... concrete and by the use of pozzolans and slag admixtures ( Ref 1 ). These admixtures reduce the corrosion rate even after it initiates. Minimum concrete cover requirements for different exposure conditions are set by building codes ( Ref 2 ). Additional measures to mitigate corrosion of steel reinforcement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract The rate and form of corrosion that occur in a particular situation depend on many complex variables. This article discusses the rate of corrosion of lead in natural and domestic water depending on the degree of water hardness caused by calcium and magnesium salts. Lead exhibits...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... thermokinetic phase transformations. It also describes the influence of cooling rate on laser heat treatment and the effect of processing parameters on temperature, microstructure, and case depth hardness. chemical vapor deposition electroless plating electroplating glazing hardening hardness heat...