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equilibrium solidification

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the two extremes of solute redistribution, equilibrium solidification and nonequilibrium Gulliver-Scheil solidification, for which solid redistribution of solute within the primary solid phase is the distinguishing parameter. The process and material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... a solidification process, such as the solidification temperature, structure analysis, fraction of phases and heat of fusion with focus on solidification of cast iron, and the use of cooling curves to control and adjust the casting conditions. It discusses deviations from equilibrium that occur due to kinetic...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract Thermal analysis is a classical method of determining phase diagrams and can be used to analyze the deviation from solidification under equilibrium conditions. This article discusses the use of thermal analysis in industrial processes and in research. It describes...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of strengthening mechanisms on the physical and mechanical properties of non-heat treatable and heat treatable aluminum alloys. It describes the use of the aluminum alloy phase diagram in determining the melting temperature, solidification path, equilibrium phases, and explains the effect of alloying element...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003724
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... Under such conditions, no changes occur with time. When global equilibrium exists, the fraction of phases can be calculated with the lever rule, and the phase diagram gives the uniform composition of the liquid and solid phases. Such conditions exist only when the solidification velocity is much smaller...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005212
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract This article illustrates the equilibrium phase diagram for an aluminum-silicon system, showing the metastable extensions of liquidus and solidus lines. It describes the classification and microstructure of the aluminum-silicon eutectic. The article presents the theories...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
...Abstract Abstract Similar to the eutectic group of invariant transformations is a group of peritectic reactions, in which a liquid and solid phase decomposes into a solid phase on cooling through the peritectic isotherm. This article describes the equilibrium freezing and nonequilibrium...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... metals or semimetals in another metal. As such, they solidify over a range of temperatures. The temperature range over which solidification takes place under equilibrium conditions is found from the phase diagram. The temperature at which solidification begins is called the liquidus temperature...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... phases. The liquidus of the metastable phase is always below the liquidus of the equilibrium phase that is absent. Fig. 3 Superimposed stable and metastable iron-rich part of the iron-carbon system. The metastable phase boundaries are shown with dashed lines. Solidification Phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... solidified and everywhere the composition is C o . This treatment is strictly an equilibrium thermodynamic treatment and gives no consideration to the kinetics of the problem. From a kinetics standpoint, the situation is rather bleak. In many cases (such as in large castings), the local solidification time...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
.... This temperature range is determined primarily by chemical composition. For many binary alloy systems and a few ternary alloy systems, the equilibrium solidification (or melting) temperature range has been established in phase diagram studies. For the vast majority of commercial alloys, however, these data...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
...) G R < − m L C o ( 1 − k ) k D L The parameters on the left are solidification parameters, while those on the right are parameters controlled by the alloy. The expression m L C o (1 − k )/ k represents the equilibrium solidification range of the alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005561
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... to form from the liquid Solidification temperature range (Δ T equilibrium = T L − T s ) Extent of alloying element segregation Morphology of the solidification grains Cracking tendency Nonequilibrium solidification as a function of composition and cooling rates A multicomponent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... it is usually the fraction of solid ( f s ) that has the value 1 in solid, 0 in liquid and values 0 < f s < 1 in the two-phase region, the so-called mushy region. This indicator function can be mapped to the local temperature only under conditions close to equilibrium solidification. In most cases...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...-called mushy region. This indicator function can be mapped to the local temperature only under conditions close to equilibrium solidification. In most cases, however, it will be an independent variable, the time evolution of which depends on the nucleation and microscopic growth conditions (see, e.g...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... alloys. The SG model can be considered as a complementary limiting case to equilibrium solidification, whereby it is assumed that solute diffusion in the solid phase is small enough to be considered negligible and that diffusion in the liquid is extremely fast—fast enough to assume that diffusion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... must be predicted: First phase to form from the liquid Solidification temperature range (Δ T equilibrium = T L − T s ) Extent of alloying element segregation Morphology of the solidification grains Cracking tendency Nonequilibrium solidification as a function of composition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... Forming Alloys , J. Appl. Phys. , Vol 87 , 2000 , p 7242 – 7248 28. Herlach D.M. , Lengsdorf R. , Galenko P. , Hartmann H. , Gandin Ch.-A. , Mosbah S. , Garcia-Escorial A. , and Henein H. , Non-Equilibrium and Near-Equilibrium Solidification...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... sizes less than approximately 10 μm. This general trend is also reflected ( Ref 2 ) in atomized aluminum-iron powder. Thermodynamic Constraints/Liquid-Solid Interface Conditions The process of solidification cannot occur without a slight deviation from equilibrium. However, it is clear...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., and under equilibrium solidification the zinc-rich eta phase should form first, followed by eutectic. However, the rapidity of solidification during the zinc die casting process results in metastable structures. In alloys 2, 3, 5, and 7 a characteristic five-layer microstructure is seen. This consists...